NeighborWorks of Western Vermont won a $4.5 million grant for innovative energy efficiency and renewable energy programs, the Vermont congressional delegation announced today.The Rutland County nonprofit housing lender was awarded the grant one of only 20 nationwide for its proposal to save energy and create jobs retrofitting homes and municipal buildings.The award comes through a nationwide energy efficiency block grant program created in legislation authored by Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.). Sen. Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.) and Rep. Peter Welch (D-Vt.) played critical roles securing the grant funded by the economic stimulus bill that Congress passed last year. This is exactly why I helped write the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program, to help communities invest in energy efficiency in homes and businesses and public buildings, said Sanders, chairman of the Senate s green jobs subcommittee. Today s announcement of nearly $4.5 million for Rutland County will help make thousands of homes and buildings more energy efficient, reduce energy bills, save money, cut greenhouse gas emissions and create jobs. This project with multiple benefits is exactly the kind of project we had in mind for the economic recovery plan. This collaborative, community-based effort puts people back to work while advancing a new green economy, said Leahy, a senior member of the Senate Appropriations Committee that led in writing the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act. NeighborWorks of Western Vermont has designed an innovative project that will have a real impact in energy conservation and clean energy generation. This grant is a recognition of NeighborWorks innovation, creativity and dedication to helping Rutland County families save energy and save money. This organization has worked hard to marshal the resources of the Rutland community, partnering with public and private entities to design a program that works for this region, said Welch, a member of the House Energy and Commerce Committee. With this significant federal investment, NeighborWorks will be able to achieve its goal of creating quality jobs and saving families money.The grant was awarded by U.S. Department of Energy under the block grant program Sanders created in the 2007 energy bill. The initial $3.2 billion in funding for the nationwide program was appropriated in the economic stimulus bill. It set aside $454 million for the competitive grants. Working with our partners we will be able to retrofit 40 percent of the homes in Rutland County for energy savings, create an estimated 352 jobs, and show the entire country what a single county in Vermont can do with resources and the determination to get it done, said Ludy Biddle, executive director of NeighborWorks.Over the three-year grant period, the West Rutland nonprofit plans to serve up to 40 percent of eligible households in the county 7,300 customers altogether with home visits on ways to lower energy costs. It will conduct at least 2,000 comprehensive energy audits and help 1,000 residents complete substantial retrofits. The total energy savings projected to be achieved over the first six years alone will total about $8.7 million.Key partners in the project include Central Vermont Public Service, Efficiency Vermont, five local banks, Green Mountain College, the Rutland Regional Planning Commission, local retailers, local governments, and community volunteers.Previous grants totaling almost $12 million were distributed to Vermont counties through regional planning commissions, to schools throughout the state, and directly to Vermont s 10 largest municipalities.Source: Vermont congressional delegation. WASHINGTON, June 11, 2010
The former Broward sheriff’s deputy at the center of the much criticized response to the mass shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in February of 2018 has been arrested on multiple charges including neglect of a child, culpable negligence, and perjury.He was taken into custody at BSO headquarters in Fort Lauderdale following a disciplinary hearing on Tuesday afternoon.Peterson, 56, was a school resource officer on duty at MSD High School in Parkland when a gunman opened fire inside the building killing 17 students and faculty and injuring 17 others.He became the focal point of public outrage when surveillance video showed the deputy taking cover outside the building while a former student fired on unarmed students and teachers inside.Another deputy, Sergeant Brian Miller, was terminated following the hearing but not arrested.The Florida Department of Law Enforcement brought the 7 charges against Peterson stating that he did nothing to intervene and stop the shooting.
Late in the third quarter of the game, Falcons quarterback Matt Ryan made a pass that found its way to the Saints’ Shy Tuttle. With the end zone on his mind, the 6-foot-3 former Tennesse defensive linesman tried to make it to the end zone when Matt Ryan tried to intercept the Saints’ man. Shy Tuttle, in turn, pulled out one of the more dirty tricks in his book and laid out a stiff-arm when Matt Ryan went in for a tackle. Shy Tuttle’s arm caught the Falcons quarterback in the face and found Matt Ryan violently hit the ground. Also Read | Why Did Andrew Luck Retire? The Real Reason Behind The Quarterback’s NFL Exit Revealed Written By Colin DCunha BIG MAN INTERCEPTION!The undrafted rookie Shy Tuttle with the pick! #Saints @KingTut_90📺: #NOvsATL on NBC📱: NFL app // Yahoo Sports appWatch free on mobile: https://t.co/iIfZOz55HO pic.twitter.com/BiGF1Nvw4h— NFL (@NFL) November 29, 2019 First Published: 29th November, 2019 11:55 IST FOLLOW US SUBSCRIBE TO US Also Read | Lamar Jackson Smashes NFL Records, Rushes For 95 Yards In Ravens’ 45-6 Win Over RamsWhile Shy Tuttle couldn’t quite turn his brutal effort into a touchdown, it’s fair to say that the Saints’ defensive tackle will remember that play for a long, long time. However, Shy Tuttle’s play was then spoiled by a block-in-the-back call on teammate Cameron Jordan shortly thereafter.Also Read | Tom Brady Net Worth, NFL Salary, And What Next For Patriots’ Quarterback WATCH US LIVE COMMENT Last Updated: 29th November, 2019 11:55 IST Matt Ryan Takes Shy Tuttle’s Brutal Stiff Arm To The Face After Interception: Watch Atlanta Falcons’ quarterback Matt Ryan was at the receiving end of a brutal stiff-arm from Saints’ Shy Tuttle as he attempted a tackle during Falcons vs Saints. Shy Tuttle went from an undrafted free agent to part of the active roster for the New Orleans Saints this season. In the NFL game against the Atlanta Falcons, the former Tennessee defensive lineman made what will arguably be the best play of his career in the NFL so far. A stiff arm from the New Orleans Saints’ defensive tackle caught out the Falcons’ Matt Ryan in a clip that has gone viral since the incident.Also Read | Dwayne ‘The Rock’ Johnson And Kevin Hart Voice Opinion On Colin Kaepernick’s NFL SituationWatch: Shy Tuttle’s brutal stiff-arm on Atlanta Falcons’ Matt Ryan Shy Tuttle stiff arm on Matt Ryan after INT ☠️☠️☠️☠️pic.twitter.com/XC3VDoz4li— Garland Gillen (@garlandgillen) November 29, 2019 LIVE TV
Claudio Bravo arrived Manchester Airport yesterday ahead of completing a move to Manchester City.As reported by Goal earlier, the goalkeeper was expected to arrive from Spain yesterday afternoon ahead of becoming Pep Guardiola’s ninth summer signing.Bravo will nearly double his salary with City, having accepted an annual wage of €6 million to leave the Spanish giants and become the Premier League side’s new first-choice goalkeeper.Bravo’s arrival, and Guardiola’s preference for Willy Caballero in competitive action since the start of the Premier League season, casts further doubt over Joe Hart’s future.It is understood that Manchester City are yet to receive a bid for the England No.1, with Everton heavily linked, but reports earlier yesterday claim Hart could stay beyond the end of the transfer window.An official announcement of Bravo’s transfer could be delayed until later in the week as Barcelona look to tie up Ajax goalkeeper Jasper Cillessen as his replacement.Share this:FacebookRedditTwitterPrintPinterestEmailWhatsAppSkypeLinkedInTumblrPocketTelegram
“It wasn’t about the points or how many points we won by,” Griffin said, alluding to playoff franchise records set by the Clippers in both departments. “It was about the way we played. I just think we realized that if we play our game and do things that we work on, we’d be successful.“I think that was what helped us. We play well when we’re relaxed.”Credit to defense, benchCoach Doc Rivers agreed that his team was able to play a more free and easy Game 2 than two days earlier. He gave credit to the bench for that.“Blake was awesome last night, and DJ (DeAndre Jordan) and CP (Chris Paul),” said Rivers, whose team will play at Golden State on Thursday in Game 3. “And our bench was phenomenal. Our bench won that game. Really. The starters were great, too. Our bench came in the end of the first, stretched the lead, I thought it allowed everybody to just go relax and play.” The Clippers lost to Golden State by four points (109-105) in their Western Conference playoff series opener Saturday at Staples Center. Then they smacked the Warriors around Monday night and won by 40 (138-98) in a performance that could arguably rank as the Clippers’ best of the season.Whereas Blake Griffin was hardly a factor Saturday because of foul trouble and some other Clippers did not take care of business down the stretch, Monday was the complete opposite. Griffin scored 35 points, the team shot 56.6 percent from the field and 91.4 percent from the free-throw line, and the bench contributed mightily with 58 points.“You always hope to play a well-rounded game like that,” Griffin said Tuesday at practice. “But I just felt going into the game we were so much more relaxed and we were going to play better. Fortunately, we did, and it was the way we played.”Griffin explained. Newsroom GuidelinesNews TipsContact UsReport an Error Griffin put his spin on that.“They took the game to another level,” he said of the reserves. “The defensive intensity didn’t drop off, it went up. They made some shots, they were scrambling.”Speaking of the defense, Rivers doled out kudos to sixth-man Jamal Crawford, who has been struggling of late to find his shot.“My star of the game was Jamal defensively,” Rivers said. “Jamal defensively, I didn’t even know those two things would ever be said. But really, he made three defensive plays yesterday.“We got on him after Game 1 because of his defense. We said nothing about his offense. We just felt his offense dictated how he played defense, and I thought yesterday he came out and defended.” Doc isn’t sayingRivers and Warriors post Jermaine O’Neal, who played under Rivers at Boston, got into a heated conversation late in the second quarter Monday. Both received technicals. Rivers was asked what was said, but he balked.“Oh, I don’t know, it’s just a lot of talk,” he said. “I coached Jermaine and so I think it’s a little bit of that, in a good way. And to me it was more fun than anything else.”O’Neal later came back over to the Clippers bench, not necessarily to apologize.“No, he just said, ‘Hey, we’re good, right?’” Rivers said. “And I said, ‘We’re always good.’ But this is a competition, and that’s all I was saying. I don’t like getting into stuff like that. I think that’s for the players.“I don’t ever really think a coach should get involved. But I thought in that instance, it was needed.”
SAN DIEGO–In the 136-year history of the franchise, the Giants had never been shut out twice in a row to start a season.History was nearly made at Petco Park on Friday, and the Giants were oh-so-close to being on the wrong side of it.After 17 scoreless innings to open the season, third baseman Evan Longoria finally put the team on the board in 2019 with a solo home run to left field in the top of the ninth. Longoria’s homer was much-needed for a discouraged Giants’ offense, but it was a rare …
(Visited 37 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 The news are all reporting 2014 as the hottest year on record, but no one is asking how such a measurement can be made without bias.“The heat is on: NOAA, NASA say 2014 warmest year on record,” Seth Borenstein states on PhysOrg. The data videos in the article look pretty conclusive. But for anyone who thinks scientific conclusions should rest on evidence, not on authority (even prestigious specialty organizations like NOAA and NASA), it might bear examining the question of earth’s temperature from a philosophical viewpoint: How does one measure it? We can’t put a thermometer under Mother Earth’s tongue.Even when we use a thermometer for a human, we are arbitrarily taking a measurement from one part of the body to the exclusion of others, because we consider it “useful” as a proxy for a person’s health. The reading might be different in the rectum, or the ears, or at the abdomen compared to the extremities. If mouth temperature under the tongue is useful, there is a bit of natural fluctuation around the mean; your temperature is rarely exactly 98.6° F. Scientists know that all measurements involve some degree of error. They use different methods of averaging, such as mean, mode, and median, to select a measurement that is useful for their purposes.The error bars and biases are greatly exacerbated when trying to come up with “a number” that represents a global measurement. For earth’s temperature, consider just a few of the sources of error and bias:Every square mile of the earth’s surface has its own temperature at a given time. The poles are colder than the equatorial regions.Each point’s temperature is constantly changing. It’s colder at night than during the day.The temperature varies with height above the surface. The atmosphere has a temperature profile from ground to stratosphere that, too, is constantly changing.The temperature varies with depth beneath the surface; it’s hotter underground, and colder with depth in the oceans.The weather is constantly changing; air speed and humidity can influence measurements.Surfaces near a thermometer, such as black asphalt or grass, can influence measurements.Each environment has its own thermal inertia. Some rocks cool down more slowly than other surfaces. The measurement might include some residual heat from the past instead of the current temperature.Humans or machines that read the instruments can make mistakes.There are multiple methods of taking temperature: thermoelectric, mercury and other liquids, or bimetallic strips, for instance. Who decides which type of device to use?If a change in device type is made at a station, or is rolled out at all stations over time, how do measurements with the new device correlate with measurements from the previous device?All recording devices must be calibrated. It becomes difficult to ensure equal calibration for monitoring stations around the world. Some countries could be more careless. Some stations might drop out from damage, neglect, or vandalism.It’s impossible to gather data from every point on the globe, so decisions have to be made about where to put monitoring stations.It’s impossible to gather data continuously from a given monitoring station, so decisions have to be made about what times of day to collect data points. Should it be daily highs and lows? Or should it be temperatures at noon and midnight? Who decides?Earth’s climate has natural cyclic variations over multiple time scales, some of them poorly known or unknown.This is not a complete list. So what is the “temperature of the earth”? There is no such thing. There is “a” temperature at “a” place, at “a” time, under certain environmental conditions, at a given humidity and wind speed, as measured by an artificial device that may or may not be calibrated properly and working properly. By itself, a temperature reading signifies nothing about climate, because it’s trying to measure a moving target in a very small location on a huge planet.It should be obvious that human bias enters every factor. Someone has to decide where to put the monitoring stations, what device to use, and what data points to collect at what times. When the data are in, the numbers must be crunched and the error mitigated according to some model or method. A scientist or a program based on a model may decide to toss out data that appear anomalous according to someone’s criteria, but what if those data points are meaningful? Models and methods are human constructs, devised for their “usefulness” – but even so, models are only simulations of reality, not reality itself. It’s impossible to know all the factors that could influence the results.Much more troublesome is trying to link temperature trends (if they are meaningful at all) to causes. Seth Borenstein’s article is adamant that humans have caused 2014 to be the hottest year on record. Who could possibly know that? Pictures of smokestacks at power plants can’t prove it; that titillates the emotions by visualization, perhaps, but isolated pictures are not global evidence. Recently, for instance, it was reported that more methane (a potent greenhouse gas) was emitted by earthquakes than previously thought (Science Magazine). Hardly a month goes by without some new factor being reported that could alter the models’ conclusions. Here’s one from a few days ago on PhysOrg: “Mountain system artificially inflates temperature increases at higher elevations,” suggesting that “warming in the mountains of the western U.S. likely is not as large as previously supposed.” Here’s another one announced on PhysOrg 11 days ago: “A new NASA-led study shows that tropical forests may be absorbing far more carbon dioxide than many scientists thought, in response to rising atmospheric levels of the greenhouse gas.” Examples like this could be multiplied.Sociologists of science probably find it intriguing that the “climate of opinion” on anthropogenic climate change has divided sharply between the “consensus” and the “deniers”. Both have well-qualified experts to point fingers across the aisle. The point of this analysis is not to take sides, but to point out, from a philosophical perspective, that such answers cannot be known by the methods of science. There are too many variables. The error bars are too large. There are too many unknowns and unknowables. Scientists don’t fully understand all the factors and feedback mechanisms, like clouds, ocean currents and forests, that could alter the models significantly. Human biases are unavoidable.For example, consensus scientists were caught red-faced when having to admit a 15-year “warming hiatus” since about 1995. They rushed to rescue their conclusions (i.e., about warming being man’s fault) by looking for ad hoc explanations. Here’s one that appeared a few days ago on PhysOrg: “The ‘warming hiatus’ that has occurred over the last 15 years has been partly caused by small volcanic eruptions.” The article claims, “a series of small 21st century volcanic eruptions deflected substantially more solar radiation than previously estimated.” But this explanation, while giving the consensus a story to tell the press, raises more questions than it answers. What other factors are substantially greater “than previously estimated”? If small volcanoes have this much power to influence the climate in short order, why aren’t the alarmists blaming the volcanoes instead of the power plants? And if smoke and dust lower the temperature, why isn’t the solution to throw even more soot from power plants into the atmosphere?Consensus scientists know and believe that climate swings greater than anything observed today have occurred naturally in the past. So the current debate reduces to identifying what factors out of large number of possibilities, including unknowns and unknown unknowns, tend to indict human beings for a trend that might be purely natural. Experts in scientific ethics might well ask, also, why warming is such a worrisome thing, if animals and plants thrived in the past under even greater climate swings.When scientific institutions (or consensus deniers) take leave of their empirical modesty and become emotional advocates for causes that cannot be rationalized by scientific methods, even in principle, it’s a good time to ask whether ideology or politics is influencing their behavior. This goes for Clarke and Lawler, who passionately argued on The Conversation that people need to trust experts, otherwise they are being anti-intellectual. Some questions, though, are not questions of science; they are questions of philosophy about science. Many scientists are not trained to think critically about the limitations of science.Again, this is not to take sides in a “heated” debate, but to step back and look at the debate philosophically. Professor Jeffrey Kasser, in his Teaching Company series on Philosophy of Science, tells a somewhat humorous story about the difficulty of objectively measuring a property of a material, namely “fragility.” It seems simple at first; you hit something, and if it breaks, it’s fragile, right? But what if it breaks only when hit hard, or with a certain kind of object? At the end of a long train of factors to consider, he ends with having to define fragility with a long list of arbitrary methods: you have to hit the object with a standard hammer with a standard whack at a given angle, etc. etc.Even taking the temperature of a room could require a long list of directions that some human had to decide: use a certain kind of thermometer, at a certain height off the floor, holding it with gloves instead of bare hands, and so forth. But then, what kind of gloves, and how thick? Does the measurer have to wear a white lab coat? There are an infinite number of conditions that might change the measurement. We know some are silly and unlikely to affect the outcome, such as what the measurer had for breakfast. But those criteria cannot be defined scientifically; they are arbitrary, based on what the people who define the method consider useful. No human can know all the factors that come into play. And that’s just for measuring a small room. How much more defining the “temperature of the earth.” We hope you see that such a measurement is meaningless!Interestingly, temperature itself is a vexed question. What is it? There are several definitions; motion of molecules, that which feels hot to the touch, that which raises mercury a certain number of millimeters in a tube, etc. But what is temperature? The operationalist Bridgman said, “Temperature is what thermometers measure” (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). The mathematician Fourier forswore the debate about heat, opting instead to offer an equation that describes what heat does, not what it is. Often in science, the deeper the questions you ask about seemingly simple phenomena, the more puzzling they become. Even Newton did not deign to feign what gravity is. He only described what it does, and what calculations you can make with an equation.Finally, we should think about scientific ethics. Ostensibly, it is the job of a scientist to describe and explain a phenomenon, not to advocate for what politicians should do about it. So why are all these climate scientists like Michael Mann and his friends warming up to U.N. climate summits and telling them what must be done? You may agree with him, and it is his right, like any other person’s, to have political beliefs. But to claim a belief about climate change is scientific goes far beyond the ability of science to know. The take-home lesson from this entry is that science is not objective; it is profoundly human, and humans are often driven by ideology. Don’t be influenced by majorities and pictures and graphs, when the underlying data cannot be conclusive. If it’s consensus, it’s not science; if it’s science, it is not consensus.
M-Pesa, the world’s largest mobile money network, has enabled millions of Africans to gain access to safe and secure banking solutions. The idea has become a pioneering innovation for the continent, and is now used as a model for similar systems around the world.Mobile money markets are hugely popular in Africa, offering easy, secure methods of payment and transfer of funds using simple text-based mobile technology. M-Pesa, a leader in the industry, celebrates 10 years of dominance in countries such as Kenya and Uganda. (Image: Flickr)CD AndersonLaunched by telecommunications group Vodafone/Safaricom in 2007, M-Pesa (“pesa” is Swahili for “money”) has become a way of life for 30 million Africans in 10 countries. More than 80% of Kenyans use the service. The network also enjoys market dominance in Tanzania and Uganda.The ingeniously simple method of money transfers made via cellphone messaging (SMS) has connected many to formal banking systems and enabled opportunities for small business and informal commerce, as well as played a part in helping to eradicate poverty, particularly in rural areas.The system uses simple, text-based technology available on older cellular phones. While more sophisticated mobile banking is the norm around the world, the simplicity of M-Pesa is that customers do not need bank accounts to use the network.The adoption and rise in popularity of mobile money networks in Africa has been steady. M-Pesa and its various competitor networks now not only include money transfers and other standard banking procedures, but also healthcare provision, access to international money markets and long-term lending.Tracking the growth of the mobile money market in Africa over the last 10 years. (Infographic: CNN)In 2016, according to Vodafone, M-Pesa was used in six billion transactions. Additionally, research by Digital Frontiers found a 22% drop in female-headed households living in poverty in areas with access to M-Pesa. The same study noted that the source of income for almost 200,000 women in rural areas shifted from the low-income, labour intensive agricultural sector to more prosperous small business creation. The research also showed an increase in saving and investing money through using the M-Pesa network.M-Pesa transactions are expected to surpass $1.3-billion (R17-billion) in the next three years, according to research by consulting firm Frost & Sullivan.Tracking the growth of the mobile money market in Africa over the last 10 years. (Infographic: CNN)The future of mobile money markets presents both growth opportunities and challenges. Safaricom CEO Bob Collymore told CNN that the network wanted to focus on developing a better user experience, with an eye on increasing the use of smart device technology in Africa compared to standard text-based mobile technology.As with any innovative product, a focus on developing more ground-breaking mobile financial services is also a key objective. “One of the big problems has been the relative clumsiness of using M-Pesa,” Collymore said, adding that new, simpler solutions would work hand-in-hand with better technology, such as the “tap and pay” method and EMV smart chip cards.Another focus is breaking into new markets, the rest of Africa primarily, but also increasing its presence in Asia, Eastern Europe (M-Pesa is used in Romania and Albania, which has a large informal economy, often operating without bank accounts) and the Middle East.M-Pesa was introduced in South Africa in 2010, gaining more than a million users. It aimed to conquer a market of 13 million economically active people who did not use bank accounts. However, because of stricter banking regulations in South Africa, as well as the development of more tech-savvy banking products, the system found little foothold in the country.Tracking the growth of the mobile money market in Africa over the last 10 years. (Infographic: CNN)While more and more competing mobile and smart phone banking systems are aiming to provide services for larger transactions, M-Pesa aims to keep the focus on what made it the dominant, most longstanding player in the market, namely safe, convenient micro-banking (M-Pesa does not transact anything larger than $675 (R8,000).“The banking sector across the world has always ignored the so-called base of the pyramid. We haven’t because we understand that the base of the pyramid needs to be served and there’s also commercial viability in doing that.”Source: CNN, AFKInsiderWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.
Getting Started as a CinematographerNow that you have all this information, it’s time to start shooting. Seriously. The only way to become a cinematographer is by shooting work, no matter what type of work it is. In this interview from DP/30, Oscar winning cinematographer Wally Pfister talks about some of his early work shooting for MTV and small budget horror films.I highly recommend also checking out this video from Zacuto and Kessler, where legendary cinematographers share their insights and inspirations. It hits the nail on the head of everything a cinematographer will experience.Authors Note: I hope you find this guide helpful on your journey as a cinematographer. If you feel like these resources still aren’t enough, be sure to let us know in the comments below. We’d love to keep writing future pieces on cinematography to help you learn anything you need to. FramingImage: Cinematographer Robert Richardson framing shots via Variety Framing a shot is a cinematographer’s calling card. The typical audience member’s understanding of cinematography is how the film looks. They don’t take into account camera choices, lenses, and lighting. They view cinematography as just framing, but in their defense — framing is a major factor in the overall look of the film.Framing may be one of the most talked-about subjects on this site. Not only have we briefly run down the standard shots a cinematographer uses, we have since gone back to go incredibly in-depth on each shot.Extreme Wide ShotImage: Inglourious Basterds Extreme Wide shot via The Weinstein Company and Universal PicturesAn extreme wide shot showcases the surroundings of a character. It prominently features scale, distance, and location. It is often taken from a long distance. This shot is often also used as an establishing shot. It typically features landscapes or massive building exteriors.Wide ShotImage: Hugo Wide Shot via Paramount PicturesThe wide shot frames a character from head to toe. It is also referred to as a long shot or a full shot. These shots are used to show the audience the context and space of a scene by featuring scale, distance, and location. Take a further look at the Extreme Wide Shot and Wide Shot by breaking down the work of master cinematographer Robert Richardson. Medium Long Shot Image: Skyfall Medium Long Shot via Sony PicturesThe medium long shot frames the subject from the knees up, and often the focus is on the location rather than the character. The shot is also called a three-quarters shot… obviously it frames three-quarters of the character. The medium long shot is often used as an establishing shot, as it shows a character in relation to their surroundings.Medium ShotImage: No Country For Old Men Medium Shot via MiramaxA medium shot frames a character from their waist up. It should be considered a personal shot, as it frames a character so it appears that the audience is in a conversation with them. This is why the medium shot is often used in interviews. It is a relatable angle that everyone is used to.Medium Close-Up ShotImage: The Big Lebowski Medium Close-Up via Working Title FilmsThe medium close-up shot frames a character from the middle of their chest and up. It is sometimes called a head and shoulders shot. The emphasis is on the character’s facial expressions, but their body language should complement the overall composition.Take a deeper look at the Medium Shot, Medium Long Shot, and Medium Close-Up by breaking down the work of master cinematographer Roger Deakins. Close-Up ShotImage: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly Close-Up via United ArtistsThe close-up shot tightly frames a character or object. Typically, close-ups are used to portray a character’s emotions, while only framing their face. They can also used to show a highly specific action. Extreme Close-Up ShotImage: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly Extreme Close-Up via United ArtistsAn extreme close-up is a view so tight that the audience can only see some features of a character or object. The entire screen is filled with a single feature, like a character’s eyes or mouth.Take an in-depth look at the Close-Up Shot and Extreme Close-Up Shot by looking at the work of Sergio Leone. These shots are the building blocks of every film. A cinematographer can build on top of these shots by adjusting the camera angle. Create a warped or unnatural feeling with a Dutch angle. Enhance a situation or character with a low-angle shot. There are so many additional cinematography techniques built upon these standard frames.Framing Resources:7 Standard Shots Every Cinematographer Must KnowHow to Frame a Wide Shot Like a Master CinematographerHow to Frame a Medium Shot Like a Master CinematographerHow to Shoot Close-Up Shots Like Sergio LeoneHow the Pros Frame a Close-Up7 Iconic Hollywood Cinematography TechniquesHow to Frame a Low-Angle ShotWarp Your Reality With Dutch Angles Cameras and LensesImage via ARRI The Director of Photography will be responsible for choosing the camera used during production. Keep in mind that your camera choice will then affect every other camera decision — film or digital, types of lenses, camera settings, and available support gear.There are so many camera options available, it’s easy to get lost. The camera choice for every production will be limited by budget. Even if you have a large budget, that doesn’t mean the most expensive camera is the best option. You’ll have to factor tons of other items into the budget. Will you need film stock or memory cards? How many lenses will you need? There are even many who agree that spending your money on lenses rather than cameras will serve you in the long run. I’m inclined to agree.Your camera choice can be guided by technical capabilities, but not decided on specs alone. Storytelling should be the deciding factor. Take a look at The Martian, a film with a budget over $100 million dollars that frequently used GoPros — cameras that cost around $500. GoPro cameras were not chosen for their capabilities, but because they perfectly fit the story.If you want a particular scene to feel larger than life, then once again you will need to pick the right camera. For The Dark Knight, director Christopher Nolan and Director of Photography Wally Pfister decided to shoot many of the major action scenes on IMAX. Once again, this was primarily a storytelling decision, but on the technical side it allowed them to capture a much larger frame.Image: Christopher Nolan and IMAX camera via ColliderFilm vs DigitalChoosing a camera is no easy task. There are a multitude of options. Will you be shooting digital or film? While film cameras had been the dominant camera choice for decades, the technical advancements of digital camera sensors are nothing short of amazing. To the average audience, they would never be able to tell if a movie was shot on film or digitally. ARRI, the company behind nearly every recent film nominated for Best Picture, makes film and digital cameras.It’s more about the texture that fuels the story. For each different project or scene, I try to find what color, what texture, what will work. And definitely the format you shoot affects that. Digital has a certain look to it. Let’s say it’s more clean. It doesn’t have the movement of the film grain. It doesn’t have that sensation that film gives you. And there’s certain things that digital cameras can do — with a shutter, for example. On a film camera you can’t go with a wider shutter than 180 degrees. So, I used that on The Wolf of Wall Street for certain scenes. I used the shutter nearly 360 degrees to blow the images. I like both. I like the depth of film. I love the film grain. It’s something that I do gravitate to, but I also appreciate the benefits of digital for certain things. – Cinematographer Rodrigo Prieto to IndieWireMany filmmakers will often get caught up in the debate of film and digital, but like we previously mentioned — storytelling is key. There are plenty of cinematographers who will use multiple types of cameras for a production. You just need to pay attention to the right factors. One of the biggest factors will be the codec used with digital cameras. The file format will determine how much control you’ll have over altering and grading the footage in post-production.Also, if you are shooting digital, make sure you have a designated Digital Imaging Technician or DIT. Like a film loader, a DIT manages the footage already recorded. Unlike a film loader, the DIT is also responsible for backing up the content, distributing footage to editors, and creating dailies.Camera SettingsImage via Blackmagic DesignThere are several camera settings a cinematographer needs to take into account before shooting. Know the camera’s dynamic range, which is the ability to capture lights and darks at once. Cameras used for major motion productions have at least 12 stops of dynamic range. Also note the frame rate you will be shooting with.Frame rate is the frequency at which film is recorded and displayed. It is measured in frames per second. The industry standard is 24 frames per second, or 24 FPS. This means that 24 single images compose one second of film. The term come from film production, but is used in digital cameras too. To be even more technical, the frame rate is more specific when a film is prepared for television broadcast.In the Americas and parts of Asia, the standard is NTSC. The National Television System Committee slowed film rates by a fraction to achieve a better broadcast standard. To determine the NTSC rate, you will multiply the FPS by 1000 and then divide by 1001. If a film was shot at 24 FPS, the actual rate broadcast will be 23.976 FPS in NTSC countries. For films shot at 30 FPS, the NTSC standard becomes 29.970 FPS.In most European and African countries, the standard is PAL. Phase Alternating Line was introduced in response to NTSC, because the NTSC standards did not broadcast well in many of the countries with extreme terrain or weather. PAL has a 20% higher resolution than NTSC, and the FPS is actually increased. A 24 FPS film will be increased to broadcast at 25 FPS.The final setting we will briefly cover is ISO, for International Standards Organization. Adjusting the ISO changes the camera sensor’s sensitivity to light. ISO was originally listed on the film stock, as different types of film were made. In the transition to digital, the ISO is now a camera setting used to change the amount of light the sensor captures. A lower ISO will achieve the best look, as a higher ISO level will introduce noise and grain.LensesCamera lenses are used in conjunction with the camera body to capture light, essentially creating the image. Prime lenses are the ones most often used in film production. Prime lenses have a fixed focal length, unlike zoom lenses, which have variable focal lengths.The focal length is the distance between the lens and the camera sensor. It is often measured in millimeters. Prime lenses will list one focal length, because they have a fixed distance. The most common prime lenses used on set are the 21mm for ultra-wide shots, 28mm up to 30mm for wide shots, 50mm for standard and medium shots, and 85mm up to 105mm for portrait shots.Zoom lenses will list both the lowest and highest focal length. Zooms can capture just about any focal length in between, but that doesn’t mean you will get the best image. A 50mm prime lens will almost always give a better image than a zoom lens set to 50mm.The second number you will see on a lens is the f-stop. The f-stop will let you know how much light the lens will let in to the sensor. A lower f-stop will allow more light than a higher f-stop.Finally, you will need to take note of the type of mount the lens uses. Nearly every manufacturer uses their own lens mount, but they can be interchangeable with a speed booster or adapter. The Canon EF-mount is one of the most versatile and used mounts on independent productions. In major studio productions, you will often see the PL-mount from ARRI. There are plenty of other mounts as well, but these two will be seen most often.Camera and Lens Resources:Questions to Ask When Buying A Filmmaking CameraCameras Used on Oscar-Nominated Films – No Film SchoolAperture, F-Stops & T-StopsLens vs Camera: Which is a Better Investment?What’s the Difference Between Lens Mounts?How Expensive Are Real Cinema Lenses?Cinema Lenses You Can AffordA Tedious Explanation of the f/stop – Matthew ColeHow Dynamic Range Affects Video – Make Use OfHow Do Camera Shutters Work?Digital Cinema Pocket Guides – The Black and BlueThe Evolving Role of a Digital Imaging Technician LightingLighting has a direct effect on the overall look of a film, which is why the lighting department reports to the Director of Photography. Here is a brief rundown on the basics of set lighting.Light is measured in Kelvin (K), which measures temperature on the absolute scale. The lower the K, the more red the light will appear. The lowest Kelvin measurement is for candlelight, which falls between 1000K – 1900K.Going higher on the Kelvin scale will progress to yellow light, white light, and blue light. Incandescent and Halogen lights are found around 2500K – 3000K. Daylight is found around 5600K. A clear blue sky can be found at 10,000K.Types of LightsImage: Set Lighting via Central Booking ServiceThere are many types of lights, but for film purposes, you should be familiar with Tungsten, HMI, Fluorescent, and LED. Also, don’t forget about the sun.Tungsten bulbs produce an orange hue around 3200K. The lamps require a lot of power and do get very hot, but they are dimmable. They are usually used for lighting interiors. Add a blue gel to tungsten lights to create daylight.Hydrargyrum Medium-Arc Iodide (HMI) lights are the most common light used on set. HMI lamps are up to four times more powerful than traditional incandescent bulbs. They can be dangerous, so it is highly advised to have a professional lighting technician on hand. HMI lights emit an ultraviolet light with a blue hue. Fluorescent bulbs were once notorious for flickering and their ugly orange-green hue. Now fluorescent bulbs are flicker free and offer multiple color temperatures. The very soft light is more efficient that an incandescent bulb and can offer a similar look to HMI lights.Light Emitting Diodes (LED) are very common on smaller sets. White LED lights are most popular, but LEDs are actually manufactured in every color. The diodes are designed to offer directional light, but they are limited in overall output. Three-Point LightingImage: Three-Point Lighting diagram via Skillman Video GroupThree-point lighting is the standard lighting setup for video production. The name gives away the fact that you will be using three light sources. Note that I said three sources, not three lights. You can use the sun if you want to, but three-point lighting is mostly used indoors. The primary light source is called the key light. This light shines directly on a character or subject from the front right or front left. This light should establish the overall look and feel of the shot. The second light is the fill light, which fills in the character or subject with a softer light. If the key light is used on the front right, then the fill light will be used on the front left. The fill light should always be positioned on the opposite side of the key light. Finally there is the back light. Like the name infers, this light is used in the back of the subject. This light is used to separate the subject from the background. Is should create a rim of light around the subject, which is why it’s also called a rim light. Keep in mind that three-point lighting is just the beginning. As a cinematographer, you will need to break some rules to achieve the best overall look. This includes turning off lights, or adding more. You can also move the light’s location and use high-key lighting or low-key lighting. You can also use a flashlight or torch to get that popular lens flare.Lighting Resources: Understanding Set Lighting and Color TemperatureAn Introduction to Three-Point Lighting – VimeoHow to Use High-Key LightingHow Low-Key Lighting Can Make Your Film Dramatic5 Practical Cinematic Lighting TutorialsLighting Tips to Consider Before Shooting Your Next Film Camera MovementImage: Cinematographer and Steadicam inventor Garrett Brown via TestedAfter finally setting up the camera and choosing a lens, it’s time to start planning a shot. By taking a look at the film’s storyboard, a cinematographer will have a good grasp on what the director is envisioning. One of the many benefits of having a storyboard is seeing the listed camera movements and director’s notes.A storyboard will often let a cinematographer and camera crew know when they need to zoom in or follow a character. By knowing what a scene calls for, they can choose the right support gear necessary to pull off a camera move. The primary piece of gear is the tripod. If the camera is supposed to be locked in — meaning no movement at all — or just a simple pan, tilt, or zoom, the tripod is going to be the golden standard piece of gear you need.Tripods really are great for a pan, tilt, or zoom. For a pan, or panorama, simply turn the tripod head (and camera) to the left or right. To achieve a tilt, move the tripod head up or down. For a zoom, you will actually lock the tripod in place and then use the camera lens to zoom in or zoom out. If you are using a prime lens, then the tripod will need to be set on a dolly to move in or move out. This is no longer a zoom, but a dolly zoom.Image: The Alamo cinematographer on camera dolly via WikipediaA dolly is typically a flat platform with wheels that travels along a set of tracks. A camera operator then rides on the dolly to capture smooth movement, often used to capture tracking shots. A dolly doesn’t always have to be an expensive cart on rails In fact, many creative cinematographers build their own with the tools they have available.The term to dolly refers to moving directly toward or away from a subject. Unlike zooming, the focal length of the lens does not change. It is the camera itself that moves in or out. If moving alongside a subject from left to right, the correct term is truck. This should not be confused with panning. Panning is looking left or right from a fixed position. Trucking is physically moving the camera left or right.When the first automobiles where created, the Hollywood studio industry was one of the first to adopt the technology. The early vehicle dolly was the predecessor to the camera car. Now these machines feature futuristic cranes and robotic arms that are used by cinematographers to capture high speed action.Image: Director of Photography Robert Richardson on a crane via EOSHDSpeaking of cranes, the crane is another camera gear staple. A camera is placed on a crane or jib to frame characters from high above and/or far away. There and hundreds of different types of cranes. Some feature platforms for a cameraman to operate the camera, while others are all digitally controlled. Cranes are often used for pedestal movements, where a camera moves vertically up or down. Now, cranes are frequently being replaced by drones on independent productions.Finally, we have to mention handheld stabilizers. There is a whole new industry out there since the first Steadicam appeared in the 1970s. The first Steadicam was a stabilizer attached to a spring loaded arm mounted to a camera operator’s chest plate. The weighted stabilizer helped keep balance, while the spring arm absorbed shock and movement. The Steadicam revolutionized the film industry, because it allowed cinematographers to follow subjects and capture footage like never before.The Steadicam totally changed tracking. Tracking is a movement that constantly follows the action from the same distance. Before, tracking was limited to a dolly’s tracks. With the Steadicam, a camera operator could follow a character anywhere. One of the earliest and most famous uses of this new type of tracking shot was the iconic stair climb in Rocky.Over the past few years, there has been a technological revolution in stabilizers. Now, with state of the art gimbals, camera operators can run with a smaller and lighter load. It has also caused a dramatic price drop, which has allowed cinematographers of every level the ability to own a handheld stabilizer.Camera Movement Resources:Questions to Ask When Picking a Camera StabilizerCamera Cars & TrailersAwesome Robots Behind the CameraHow to Use a Steadicam ShotHow to Utilize Dynamic Tracking ShotsStabilizer Rigs for Run and Gun Gigs This guide for cinematographers will teach you all the basics of cinematography while linking you to tons of other great resources for more in-depth coverage.Cinematography is an all-encompassing branch of filmmaking. It can be incredibly complex and confusing for beginners, which is why we have created this manual to help you tackle all things related to shooting a motion picture.Cinematography is defined as the art or science of motion picture photography. It is a derivative of the Greek word kinema, meaning movement. Much like a language, cinematography must be learned well before you can really communicate.A great director of photography will define light and space to create the ultimate image. Not only does this include everything moving on the screen, but also the camera movements that are used to communicate with the audience.Director of PhotographyImage: Director of Photography Emmanuel Lubezki via tasteofcinema.comThe Director of Photography, also known as the DoP or DP, is the chief cinematographer. They are responsible for working with the film’s director to bring a story to life. They are the second most powerful creative person on set. If the director was the president, the DP is the vice president. Many of the world’s greatest DPs belong to the American Society of Cinematographers (ASC).The Director of Photography manages several production departments. Primarily, they are the chief of the camera crew. The camera crew is made up by several positions, all of which are responsible for setting up and using the camera itself. The DP is also in charge of the grip and electric departments. These departments, also called G&E, are responsible for providing the necessary power, lighting, and support gear for the camera.Image: Gravity – Director of Photography Emmanuel Lubezki via Evan RichardsUnlike other creative positions on set, you can actually breakdown everything a DP does. You may not know why a director made certain decisions, but by studying film and examining every frame, you can breakdown the work of the DP. Not only do you see the actual camera movement and character blocking on set, you can breakdown the type of lighting used and its placement. You can make a very accurate guess to what type of lenses where used, as well as support gear like a Steadicam or dolly.There are tons of great cinematographers to study. One of my favorite resources is the cinematographer index from Evan Richards. Studying a film requires you to pause a movie and examine it. Richards has taken the time to take incredible stills from some of the most talented cinematographers. He then compiles complete breakdowns for some of the best films ever made. I can’t recommend this site enough.There are also resources from cinematographers themselves, like Roger Deakins, who has a filmmaking forum on his site, and Shane Hurlbut, who has created in-depth tutorials in his Inner Circle.Director of Photography Resources:Camera Crew BreakdownGrip & Electric Departments8 Cinematographers Behind Famous DirectorsRoger Deakins’ ForumEvan Richards’ Cinematographer IndexShane Hurlbut’s Inner Circle
Doha: PU Chitra ran her personal best in the women’s 1500m first round heats but failed to advance further in the World Athletics Championships here on Wednesday.Chitra, who is the Asian champion, ran 4 minutes, 11.10 seconds, which is slightly better than her earlier personal best of 4:11.55, to finish eighth in heat number two and 30th overall out of 35 runners, to bow out of the competition. Dutch Hassan Sifan, who has already bagged the 10,000m gold in this meet, led the time charts among the semi-final qualifiers with 4:03.88.Chitra’s previous personal best was during the National Inter-State Championships in Guwahati last year.The top six in each of the three heats and the next six fastest qualify for the semi-finals. IAAF World Athletics ChampionshipsPU Chitra First Published: October 2, 2019, 11:25 PM IST Get the best of News18 delivered to your inbox – subscribe to News18 Daybreak. Follow News18.com on Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, Telegram, TikTok and on YouTube, and stay in the know with what’s happening in the world around you – in real time.