1. Bottom trawl surveys on the South Georgia shelf indicate episodic declines in the abundance of the mackerel icefish Champsocephalus gunnari that, since 1990, are not directly attributable to commercial fishing. 2. The greatest effect has been observed in years when krill are known to have been scarce on the South Georgia shelf. 3. It is thought that C. gunnari survivorship is closely related to, but indirectly influenced by, krill availability. 4. Examination of food chain relationships indicates that predation by fur seals is likely to play a major role in the observed changes in C. gunnari abundance. 5. Periodic shifts in food chain relationships, involving krill, C. gunnari and fur seals, are postulated that could explain the episodic declines in the abundance of C. gunnari in the absence of fishing. 6. The study demonstrates how a key predator can have an over-riding impact on a commercial fish species, highlighting the importance of the ecosystem approach to fisheries management.
Results from an intercomparison campaign of ultraviolet spectroradiometers that was organized at Nea Michaniona, Greece July, 1–13 1997, are presented. Nineteen instrument systems from 15 different countries took part and provided spectra of global solar UV irradiance for two consecutive days from sunrise to sunset every half hour. No data exchange was allowed between participants in order to achieve absolutely independent results among the instruments. The data analysis procedure included the determination of wavelength shifts and the application of suitable corrections to the measured spectra, their standardization to common spectral resolution of 1 nm full width at half maximum and the application of cosine corrections. Reference spectra were calculated for each observational time, derived for a set of instruments which were objectively selected and used as comparison norms for the assessment of the relative agreement among the various instruments. With regard to the absolute irradiance measurements, the range of the deviations from the reference for all spectra was within ±20%. About half of the instruments agreed to within ±5%, while only three fell outside the ±10% agreement limit. As for the accuracy of the wave-length registration of the recorded spectra, for most of the spectroradiometers (14) the calculated wavelength shifts were smaller than 0.2 nm. The overall outcome of the campaign was very encouraging, as it was proven that the agreement among the majority of the instruments was good and comparable to the commonly accepted uncertainties of spectral UV measurements. In addition, many of the instruments provided consistent results relative to at least the previous two intercomparison campaigns, held in 1995 in Ispra, Italy and in 1993 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. As a result of this series of intercomparison campaigns, several of the currently operating spectroradiometers operating may be regarded as a core group of instruments, which with the employment of proper operational procedures are capable of providing quality spectral solar UV measurements.
The oceanic islands in the Southern Ocean can be considered amongst the remotest shores as, not only are they uninhabited (except for small research stations) and geographically isolated, but they are also enclosed by the oceanographic barrier of the Polar Frontal Zone. We survey island shores in the Scotia Arc mountain chain linking Antarctica to South America, including South Georgia, the South Sandwich archipelago and Adelaide Island off the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, and compare our findings to literature reports from two other Scotia Arc island groups (South Orkney and South Shetland archipelagos). The presence of marine pollution (in the form of beached debris) in this region is significant, both as a measure of man’s influence on this isolated environment, and due to direct dangers posed to the fauna. This paper reports the results of surveys of beached marine debris at various times in the last decade for each island group. The majority (> 70%) of the items recovered were anthropogenic in origin and most of these were synthetic (plastic or polystyrene). Debris densities varied from zero to 0.3 items m(-1) but were typically lower than those reported from other regions of the globe. At some localities (South Georgia), marine-debris data showed a close relationship with local fishery activity, whilst at others (South Sandwich Islands) debris appeared to have a more distant origin. Unlike oceanic debris in warm (non-polar) water localities, there was no evidence of any colonisation by biota. Debris accumulation may provide a useful indirect measure of local fishery activity and compliance with CCAMLR regulations, as well as monitoring the state of the oceans and island shores.
Custom genotyping arrays provide a flexible and accurate means of genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large number of individuals of essentially any organism. However, validation rates, defined as the proportion of putative SNPs that are verified to be polymorphic in a population, are often very low. A number of potential causes of assay failure have been identified, but none have been explored systematically. In particular, as SNPs are often developed from transcriptomes, parameters relating to the genomic context are rarely taken into account. Here, we assembled a draft Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) genome (assembly size: 2.41Gb; scaffold/contig N50: 3.1Mb/27.5kb). We then used this resource to map the probe sequences of 144 putative SNPs genotyped in 480 individuals. The number of probe-to-genome mappings and alignment length together explained almost a third of the variation in validation success, indicating that sequence uniqueness and proximity to intron-exon boundaries play an important role. The same pattern was found after mapping the probe sequences to the Walrus and Weddell seal genomes, suggesting that the genomes of species divergent by as much as 23 million years can hold information relevant to SNP validation outcomes. Additionally, re-analysis of genotyping data from seven previous studies found the same two variables to be significantly associated with SNP validation success across a variety of taxa. Finally, our study reveals considerable scope for validation rates to be improved, either by simply filtering for SNPs whose flanking sequences align uniquely and completely to a reference genome, or through predictive modeling.
We report on the electric field variations during Saharan dust advection over two atmospheric remote stations in Greece, using synergistic observations of the vertical atmospheric electric field strength (Ez) at ground level and the lidar-derived particle backscatter coefficient profiles. Both parameters were monitored for the first time with the simultaneous deployment of a ground-based field mill electrometer and a multi-wavelength polarization lidar. The field mill time series are processed to extract the diurnal variations of the global electric circuit and remove fast field perturbations due to peak lightning activity. In order to identify the influence of the elevated dust layers on the ground Ez, we extract a localized reference electric field from the time series that reflects the local fair-weather activity. Then, we compare it with the reconstructed daily average behaviour of the electric field and the Saharan dust layers’ evolution, as depicted by the lidar. The observed enhancement of the vertical electric field (up to ∼100 V m−1), for detached pure dust layers, suggests the presence of in-layer electric charges. Although higher dust loads are expected to result in such an electric field enhancement, episodic cases that reduce the electric field are also observed (up to ∼60 V m−1). To quantitatively approach our results, we examine the dependency of Ez against theoretical assumptions for the distribution of separated charges within the electrified dust layer. Electrically neutral dust is approximated by atmospheric conductivity reduction, while charge separation areas within electrically active dust layers are approximated as finite-extent cylinders. This physical approximation constitutes a more realistic description of the distribution of charges, as opposed to infinite-extent geometries, and allows for analytical solutions of the electric field strength so that observed variations during the monitored dust outbreaks can be explained.
FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailORLANDO, Fla. (AP) — Yoshimar Yotun had a goal and an assist to help Orlando City beat Real Salt Lake 3-1 on Sunday night for its franchise-record sixth consecutive win.Lamine Sane headed home a corner kick from Yotun in the 63rd minute to give Orlando City (6-2-1) a 2-1 lead. It was the first MLS goal for the 31-year-old defender, who signed with Orlando City on Feb. 20.Real Salt Lake’s Corey Baird chipped it over a sliding Joe Bendik into a wide-open net to open the scoring in the 12th minute. Damir Kreilach’s arcing pass from midfield led Baird into the left side of the area, where he raced past Sane for the finish.Dom Dwyer made it 1-1 in the 60th minute, heading home a cross from Sacha Kljestan for his sixth goal — second most in MLS — in six games this season. Yotun, from the near the spot, hammered home the rebound of a shot by Dom Dwyer to cap the scoring in the 78th.Bendik had eight saves, his most since recording 10 stops on April 24, 2016.Real Salt Lake (3-5-1) in winless in its last nine road games. May 6, 2018 /Sports News – Local Orlando City tops Real Salt Lake 3-1 for 6th straight win Written by Tags: MLS/Real Salt Lake/Soccer Associated Press
May 16, 2018 /Sports News – National MSU agrees to pay gymnastics doctor Larry Nassar’s accusers $500 million in settlement FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailABCNews.com(EAST LANSING, Mich.) — Michigan State University has agreed to pay the alleged victims of former gymnastics doctor Larry Nassar $500 million, according to a group of lawyers representing the 332 people who accused him of sexual abuse.Of the total, $425 million will go to current claimants, meaning the 332 people being represented by the lawyers.The remaining $75 million will be set aside in a trust fund in case there are any future claimants who come forward alleging abuse by Nassar.“This historic settlement came about through the bravery of more than 300 women and girls who had the courage to stand up and refuse to be silenced,” attorney John Manley said in the news release announcing the settlement today.The Michigan State University Board of Trustees signed off on the settlement during a conference call Tuesday night.The settlement only applies to cases brought against Michigan State University and individuals associated with the school. There are other lawsuits that have been filed against a number of others – such as the U.S. Olympic Committee, famed gymnastics coaches Bela and Martha Karolyi — that are not involved with this settlement and will be progressing in their respective cases.Robert Young, who is serving as special counsel to MSU, said the school “is pleased that we have been able to agree in principle on a settlement that is fair to the survivors of Nassar’s crimes.”“We appreciate the hard work both sides put into the mediation, and the efforts of the mediator, which achieved a result that is responsible and equitable,” Young said.Nassar, who served as the longtime doctor to the U.S. Olympic gymnastics team, was sentenced to up to 175 years in prison in January.Nassar faced charges on seven counts of criminal sexual misconduct in the first degree, to which he pleaded guilty to in November.Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved. Written by Beau Lund
KZ Okpala scored 22 points to lead the Cardinal (9-10, 2-5), which lost its fifth out of the last seven. Daejon Davis added 17 points. FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailSTANFORD, Calif. (AP) — Sedrick Barefield scored 12 of his team-high 18 points in the second half, including four free throws in the final 37 seconds, and Utah beat Stanford 70-66 on Thursday night, its first win at Maples Pavilion as a member of the Pac-12. Donnie Tillman added 11 points for the Utes (10-8, 4-2), who won their season-high third straight and four of six overall. Stanford hosts Colorado on Saturday. Tags: Pac 12/Sedrick Barefield/Utah Runnin’ Utes Basketball Stanford opened the second half with a 12-3 run to overtake the Utes at 38-35 and maintained its advantage until Utah scored eight unanswered points to take a lead and the game swayed back and forth the rest of the way. Stanford had 10 blocks, seven in the first half, and has 98 total blocks, averaging 5.1 per game, third in the Pac-12 Conference. Oscar Da Silva (24) and Josh Sharma (23) account for about half. … Davis missed his first six shots and went 1 of 8 in the first half with his only basket on a dunk. … Freshman guard Cormac Ryan missed his third straight game with an injury. … Sharma reached double figures in rebounds for the first time in seven games and the second time this season. Utah, which hit seven of its final nine shots, outscored the Cardinal 13-3 the rest of the way and took a 31-26 advantage into halftime. Marcus Sheffield hit a 3-pointer to give Stanford a 23-18 lead with 4:50 left in the first half. Utah had lost six straight in Maples Pavilion and last won at Stanford in 1971. … Timmy Allen has averaged 8.0 rebounds over his past four games after averaging 3.4 through his first 14 games. … Barefield has reached double figures in scoring in eight of his last nine games. BIG PICTURE UP NEXT Utah travels to California on Saturday. Written by Parker Van Dyke, who had 10 points, made a lay-up with 55 seconds left to give Utah the lead for good. Jayce Johnson was a point away from a double-double. January 25, 2019 /Sports News – Local Barefield scores 18 to lead Utah past Stanford, 70-66 Associated Press
FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailiStock(NEW YORK) — Here are the scores from Thursday’s sports events:AMERICAN LEAGUETampa Bay 14, Minnesota 3Kansas City 4, Texas 2Chicago White Sox 10, Cleveland 4L.A. Angels 9, Seattle 3Boston at N.Y. Yankees 7:05 p.m., postponedNATIONAL LEAGUESt. Louis 5, Philadelphia 3San Francisco 3, Miami 1Colorado 11, Arizona 10; 10 InningsMilwaukee 11, Pittsburgh 5L.A. Dodgers 2, N.Y. Mets 0NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION PLAYOFFSToronto 118, Golden State 109Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved. May 31, 2019 /Sports News – National Scoreboard roundup — 5/30/19 Written by Beau Lund
November 15, 2019 /Sports News – Local No. 17 Utah State pulls away to beat NC A&T 81-54 Written by Tags: Utah State Aggies Basketball FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailLOGAN, Utah (AP) — Alphonso Anderson had 21 points, six rebounds and three assists and Justin Bean added 18 points, 10 rebounds and three assists to help No. 17 Utah State beat North Carolina A&T 81-54 on Friday night.Ronald Jackson led North Carolina A&T with 15 points.With North Carolina A&T (1-3) rallying in the second half, Utah State (4-0) made a key run to pull away.After trailing by as much as 15 points, North Carolina A&T cut it to six points on Fred Cleveland’s 3-pointer with 14:03 left. Utah State regrouped and went on a 9-0 run over the next two minutes to make it 51-36. Utah State took advantage of three North Carolina A&T turnovers, with Bean scoring five of the Aggies’ nine points.For the third straight game, Utah State raced to a big lead, getting out to a 12-2 advantage. North Carolina A&T rallied through the first half to climb within eight points on Tyler Maye’s jumper.Utah State finished the half on a 10-3 run to take a 38-23 lead.SCORING DISTRIBUTIONUtah State has had a different leading scorer in every game this season. Merrill scored 28 points in the Aggies’ season-opening win over Montana State, Bean had 18 in a blowout victory over Weber State, and Brock Miller had 27 in the win over Denver.BIG PICTURENorth Carolina A&T: North Carolina A&T hung with Utah State at points in the game and forced 15 Utah State turnovers, getting contributions from Jackson, Maye and Cleveland.Utah State: Utah State was able to make runs at opportune times to pull away from North Carolina A&T. Sophomore center Neemias Queta sat out again, rehabbing his knee injury.UP NEXTNorth Carolina A&T: At North Texas on Tuesday night.Utah State: Host UTSA on Monday night. Associated Press