1 West Ham boss Sam Allardyce is concentrating his transfer efforts on signing a central defender – as he feels his attack is in fine working order.The Hammers drew a blank in their Premier League opener against Tottenham at the weekend and James Collins was sent off for two yellow cards.James Tomkins is struggling with a niggling hamstring injury, although he could be passed fit for the weekend’s trip to Crystal Palace.“We’ve finished our search for players on the front line. Our main concern is at centre-half now,” Allardyce said.“We don’t have Collins because he’s suspended and we might not have Tomkins because of injury. That leaves us very short.”Allardyce has been linked most recently with loan bids for Manchester City defenders Micah Richards and Matija Nastasic. Sam Allardyce
Instead, Justin Verlander blazed 97 mph heat, Shane Bieber and Aroldis Chapman each struck out the side and the American League slowed a loaded … CLICK HERE if you are having a problem viewing the photos on a mobile deviceBy BEN WALKER | AP Baseball WriterCLEVELAND (AP) — For one night, the pitchers took back the power.Hours after an awesome Home Run Derby got everyone buzzing even louder about monster shots and juiced balls, only a couple flew out of Progressive Field on Tuesday.
(Visited 37 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 The news are all reporting 2014 as the hottest year on record, but no one is asking how such a measurement can be made without bias.“The heat is on: NOAA, NASA say 2014 warmest year on record,” Seth Borenstein states on PhysOrg. The data videos in the article look pretty conclusive. But for anyone who thinks scientific conclusions should rest on evidence, not on authority (even prestigious specialty organizations like NOAA and NASA), it might bear examining the question of earth’s temperature from a philosophical viewpoint: How does one measure it? We can’t put a thermometer under Mother Earth’s tongue.Even when we use a thermometer for a human, we are arbitrarily taking a measurement from one part of the body to the exclusion of others, because we consider it “useful” as a proxy for a person’s health. The reading might be different in the rectum, or the ears, or at the abdomen compared to the extremities. If mouth temperature under the tongue is useful, there is a bit of natural fluctuation around the mean; your temperature is rarely exactly 98.6° F. Scientists know that all measurements involve some degree of error. They use different methods of averaging, such as mean, mode, and median, to select a measurement that is useful for their purposes.The error bars and biases are greatly exacerbated when trying to come up with “a number” that represents a global measurement. For earth’s temperature, consider just a few of the sources of error and bias:Every square mile of the earth’s surface has its own temperature at a given time. The poles are colder than the equatorial regions.Each point’s temperature is constantly changing. It’s colder at night than during the day.The temperature varies with height above the surface. The atmosphere has a temperature profile from ground to stratosphere that, too, is constantly changing.The temperature varies with depth beneath the surface; it’s hotter underground, and colder with depth in the oceans.The weather is constantly changing; air speed and humidity can influence measurements.Surfaces near a thermometer, such as black asphalt or grass, can influence measurements.Each environment has its own thermal inertia. Some rocks cool down more slowly than other surfaces. The measurement might include some residual heat from the past instead of the current temperature.Humans or machines that read the instruments can make mistakes.There are multiple methods of taking temperature: thermoelectric, mercury and other liquids, or bimetallic strips, for instance. Who decides which type of device to use?If a change in device type is made at a station, or is rolled out at all stations over time, how do measurements with the new device correlate with measurements from the previous device?All recording devices must be calibrated. It becomes difficult to ensure equal calibration for monitoring stations around the world. Some countries could be more careless. Some stations might drop out from damage, neglect, or vandalism.It’s impossible to gather data from every point on the globe, so decisions have to be made about where to put monitoring stations.It’s impossible to gather data continuously from a given monitoring station, so decisions have to be made about what times of day to collect data points. Should it be daily highs and lows? Or should it be temperatures at noon and midnight? Who decides?Earth’s climate has natural cyclic variations over multiple time scales, some of them poorly known or unknown.This is not a complete list. So what is the “temperature of the earth”? There is no such thing. There is “a” temperature at “a” place, at “a” time, under certain environmental conditions, at a given humidity and wind speed, as measured by an artificial device that may or may not be calibrated properly and working properly. By itself, a temperature reading signifies nothing about climate, because it’s trying to measure a moving target in a very small location on a huge planet.It should be obvious that human bias enters every factor. Someone has to decide where to put the monitoring stations, what device to use, and what data points to collect at what times. When the data are in, the numbers must be crunched and the error mitigated according to some model or method. A scientist or a program based on a model may decide to toss out data that appear anomalous according to someone’s criteria, but what if those data points are meaningful? Models and methods are human constructs, devised for their “usefulness” – but even so, models are only simulations of reality, not reality itself. It’s impossible to know all the factors that could influence the results.Much more troublesome is trying to link temperature trends (if they are meaningful at all) to causes. Seth Borenstein’s article is adamant that humans have caused 2014 to be the hottest year on record. Who could possibly know that? Pictures of smokestacks at power plants can’t prove it; that titillates the emotions by visualization, perhaps, but isolated pictures are not global evidence. Recently, for instance, it was reported that more methane (a potent greenhouse gas) was emitted by earthquakes than previously thought (Science Magazine). Hardly a month goes by without some new factor being reported that could alter the models’ conclusions. Here’s one from a few days ago on PhysOrg: “Mountain system artificially inflates temperature increases at higher elevations,” suggesting that “warming in the mountains of the western U.S. likely is not as large as previously supposed.” Here’s another one announced on PhysOrg 11 days ago: “A new NASA-led study shows that tropical forests may be absorbing far more carbon dioxide than many scientists thought, in response to rising atmospheric levels of the greenhouse gas.” Examples like this could be multiplied.Sociologists of science probably find it intriguing that the “climate of opinion” on anthropogenic climate change has divided sharply between the “consensus” and the “deniers”. Both have well-qualified experts to point fingers across the aisle. The point of this analysis is not to take sides, but to point out, from a philosophical perspective, that such answers cannot be known by the methods of science. There are too many variables. The error bars are too large. There are too many unknowns and unknowables. Scientists don’t fully understand all the factors and feedback mechanisms, like clouds, ocean currents and forests, that could alter the models significantly. Human biases are unavoidable.For example, consensus scientists were caught red-faced when having to admit a 15-year “warming hiatus” since about 1995. They rushed to rescue their conclusions (i.e., about warming being man’s fault) by looking for ad hoc explanations. Here’s one that appeared a few days ago on PhysOrg: “The ‘warming hiatus’ that has occurred over the last 15 years has been partly caused by small volcanic eruptions.” The article claims, “a series of small 21st century volcanic eruptions deflected substantially more solar radiation than previously estimated.” But this explanation, while giving the consensus a story to tell the press, raises more questions than it answers. What other factors are substantially greater “than previously estimated”? If small volcanoes have this much power to influence the climate in short order, why aren’t the alarmists blaming the volcanoes instead of the power plants? And if smoke and dust lower the temperature, why isn’t the solution to throw even more soot from power plants into the atmosphere?Consensus scientists know and believe that climate swings greater than anything observed today have occurred naturally in the past. So the current debate reduces to identifying what factors out of large number of possibilities, including unknowns and unknown unknowns, tend to indict human beings for a trend that might be purely natural. Experts in scientific ethics might well ask, also, why warming is such a worrisome thing, if animals and plants thrived in the past under even greater climate swings.When scientific institutions (or consensus deniers) take leave of their empirical modesty and become emotional advocates for causes that cannot be rationalized by scientific methods, even in principle, it’s a good time to ask whether ideology or politics is influencing their behavior. This goes for Clarke and Lawler, who passionately argued on The Conversation that people need to trust experts, otherwise they are being anti-intellectual. Some questions, though, are not questions of science; they are questions of philosophy about science. Many scientists are not trained to think critically about the limitations of science.Again, this is not to take sides in a “heated” debate, but to step back and look at the debate philosophically. Professor Jeffrey Kasser, in his Teaching Company series on Philosophy of Science, tells a somewhat humorous story about the difficulty of objectively measuring a property of a material, namely “fragility.” It seems simple at first; you hit something, and if it breaks, it’s fragile, right? But what if it breaks only when hit hard, or with a certain kind of object? At the end of a long train of factors to consider, he ends with having to define fragility with a long list of arbitrary methods: you have to hit the object with a standard hammer with a standard whack at a given angle, etc. etc.Even taking the temperature of a room could require a long list of directions that some human had to decide: use a certain kind of thermometer, at a certain height off the floor, holding it with gloves instead of bare hands, and so forth. But then, what kind of gloves, and how thick? Does the measurer have to wear a white lab coat? There are an infinite number of conditions that might change the measurement. We know some are silly and unlikely to affect the outcome, such as what the measurer had for breakfast. But those criteria cannot be defined scientifically; they are arbitrary, based on what the people who define the method consider useful. No human can know all the factors that come into play. And that’s just for measuring a small room. How much more defining the “temperature of the earth.” We hope you see that such a measurement is meaningless!Interestingly, temperature itself is a vexed question. What is it? There are several definitions; motion of molecules, that which feels hot to the touch, that which raises mercury a certain number of millimeters in a tube, etc. But what is temperature? The operationalist Bridgman said, “Temperature is what thermometers measure” (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). The mathematician Fourier forswore the debate about heat, opting instead to offer an equation that describes what heat does, not what it is. Often in science, the deeper the questions you ask about seemingly simple phenomena, the more puzzling they become. Even Newton did not deign to feign what gravity is. He only described what it does, and what calculations you can make with an equation.Finally, we should think about scientific ethics. Ostensibly, it is the job of a scientist to describe and explain a phenomenon, not to advocate for what politicians should do about it. So why are all these climate scientists like Michael Mann and his friends warming up to U.N. climate summits and telling them what must be done? You may agree with him, and it is his right, like any other person’s, to have political beliefs. But to claim a belief about climate change is scientific goes far beyond the ability of science to know. The take-home lesson from this entry is that science is not objective; it is profoundly human, and humans are often driven by ideology. Don’t be influenced by majorities and pictures and graphs, when the underlying data cannot be conclusive. If it’s consensus, it’s not science; if it’s science, it is not consensus.
Janine ErasmusThe Department of Arts and Culture (DAC) has pledged to make its cultural institutions fully accessible to the disabled, and is certainly putting its money where its mouth is – so to speak. Minister of Arts and Culture Pallo Jordan announced in December that R162 million was to be made available to upgrade facilities at its public institutions in order to make them easily accessible to those with disabilities. It is crucial that every single visitor to South Africa is able to indulge freely in cultural tourism. This has been identified by DAC as an important sector for growth and is one of the focus areas of its Investing in Culture programme.DAC will spend R162-million over the next three years on its cultural facilities to ensure that disabled people will not be excluded from enjoying the services on offer. The minister announced the plan as part of Government’s ongoing plan to improve the plight of people with disabilities, adding that the funds will be allocated in three stages over the next three years – R39 million for 2008, R43 million for 2009 and R80 million for 2010.South Africa’s Constitution, hailed as one of the most progressive to be found anywhere, offers equal inclusion in all aspects of society to everyone – including those with disabilities. However, the disabled still find themselves hampered on occasion because South African society has in past years been geared mostly towards the able-bodied, and the basic requirements of those who use wheelchairs or other aids to get around were not always accommodated. With the launch of its new initiative DAC is upholding the principles of the Constitution in this regard.“We have detailed information on the provision that has been made for the upgrading of security and access for persons with disabilities at the Department’s public entities,” said Jordan. “These would include places like museums, playhouses and other institutions that bring people together to not only enjoy artistic expressions but witness and experience the heritage of our beautiful country.”With the likes of the Iziko Museums of Cape Town, the Northern Flagship Institution (a group of cultural institutions based mostly in the Gauteng area), the National Library of South Africa, and all of South Africa’s World Heritage Sites falling under the jurisdiction and care of DAC, these important elements of South Africa’s cultural heritage will soon be undergoing any necessary modifications to make them more accessible.According to Jordan, “The upgrade of security and accessibility for persons with disabilities is a priority to make the arts accessible to all the people of the country.”Currently there are several policies in place for the benefit of the disabled. South Africa passed the Bill of Rights in 1992 – in Section 9(3) of the South African Bill of Rights a statement declares that “the state may not unfairly discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more grounds, including race, gender, sex, pregnancy, marital status, ethnic or social origin, colour, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, language, and birth.”Cabinet then passed the Integrated National Disability Strategy in 1997, a document that provides guidelines in order to help the country achieve a human rights-based model of disability inclusion in South African society. In his foreword to the White Paper on the Integrated National Disability Strategy, then Deputy President Thabi Mbeki wrote, “Research estimates that between 5 and 12% of South Africans are moderately to severely disabled. Despite this large percentage of disabled people, few services and opportunities exist for people with disabilities to participate equally in society.”The Integrated National Disability Strategy was followed a year later by the Employment Equity Bill, which prohibits unfair discrimination on any grounds in any employment policy or practice.It is mostly pre-1994 buildings that will need to be renovated and adapted, as later structures were put up with disabled access already in place, including those sponsored by the ministry. Among these are the Luthuli Museum in Kwa-Dukuza, KwaZulu-Natal, for instance, which was designed with disabled access right from the planning stage.At present the department is in the process of ascertaining the requirements of its public entities in terms of security and accessibility, while a service provider will be appointed in the near future to report on the current status.Do you have queries or comments about this article? Email Janine Erasmus at email@example.com. Useful linksDepartment of Arts and CultureDisabled People of South Africa
In the pool, Du Toit finished second in the S9 100m freestyle. Australia’s Ellie Cole took the win in an Oceania record of 1:02.77, while Du Toit touched the wall in 1:03.45. Spain’s Sarai Gasconi claimed third place, just behind the South African star, in 1:03.62. MedalsAfter the completion of Friday’s competitions, South Africa was in 18th place on the medal table, with team having won six gold, nine silver and nine bronze medals, bringing their medal count to 24. Fastest qualifierOscar Pistorius sent waves of excitement rippling through the crowd by winning his heat in the men’s T44 400 metres with ease in 48.31, which was the fastest qualifying time by some way. Hendri Herbst, the winner of a bronze medal in the 100 metres freestyle, found the 400 metres less to his liking and finished seventh, despite setting an African record of 4:59.51. The USA’s Bradley Snyder took a decisive victory in 4:32.41. ‘It’s all over’“It’s all over. I went out there and tried my best. I now walk away from the sport,” Du Toit, the defending champion in the event, told reporters after the race. “To get second is a little disappointing.” She hinted that there had been some problems, possibly with administrators in the lead-up to the Games. “Two months ago I wasn’t going to come [to the Paralympics]. It’s been a tough couple of months,” she said. “Zanardi is a smart racer and he knew if he took my wheel, he would probably get out in front of me,” said Van Dyk. Gold medal winner Cole graciously said: “I actually feel really bad about beating Natalie. I know I should feel really stoked, but it was her last race and I did want her to do really well.” Narrow lossBoston Marathon legend, Ernst van Dyk, a nine-time winner of the race, lost out on a gold medal in the 64km men’s hand cycling road race by the narrowest of margins. In the men’s H2 individual road race, South African cyclist Stuart McCreadie placed eighth as the Austrian Walter Ablinger won gold after picking up silver in the time trial. “I look back and realise I gave everything in the pool and gave everything as a person. It’s time to move on. I’ve no idea what’s next.” Ireland’s Jason Smyth ran a world record time of 21.05 seconds to win gold in the T13 200 metres. He was followed over the line by three Russians, who all ran personal bests, Cuba’s Luis Felipe Gutierrez, who ran a season’s best, and in sixth place, South Africa’s Jonathan Ntutu, who posted a regional record of 22.37 seconds. Back in the pool, the very busy Charl Bouwer, competing in the SM13 class, finished fourth in the 200m individual medley. Victory went to Ihar Boki in 2:06.30. Jan Nehro, with guide Duane Fortuin, finished sixth in the men’s T11 5 000 metres, running a season’s best of 16:09.51. Victory went to Christian Valenzuela of Chile in 15:26.26. Great Britain remained locked in a tight battle with Russia for second place. The hosts occupy that spot with 32 gold, 40 silver and 42 bronze medals, a total of 114 medals in all, to the Russians’ 32 gold, 35 silver and 25 bronze medals – a total of 92 medals. Blake Leeper, who won the first heat, posted the second best time of 50.63 seconds, which was a regional record. The gold meant Hayes repeated her feat of four years earlier in Beijing, where she won a silver medal in the 100 metres and gold in the long jump. Her winning leap was remarkably similar to that of 2008 too, measuring two centimetres more at 5.70 metres. 8 September 2012 Victory went to former Formula One driver Alex Zanardi, whose time of 2:00.32 was a mere second faster than the South African’s. Wim Decleir of Belgium took third place, three seconds behind the Italian. ‘Happy’“When he came past me, he came with a lot of power and I was running low because I’d been in front for quite a bit. But that’s the risk you take when you go out in front and I’m just happy to come away with a silver.” Ilse Hayes won gold in the women’s F13 long jump on Friday to help lift South Africa to 18th on the London Paralympics medal table, while Natalie du Toit ended her superb Paralympic career with a silver medal. Up at the top, runaway leaders China passed the 200 medal mark, reaching 206 with 83 gold, 65 silver and 58 bronze medals. World record setter’s only lossIt was the 18-year-old Belarussian’s fifth gold medal and fifth world record. The only man to beat him in any race in London was Bouwer in the 50m freestyle, which he won in an African record of 23.99 seconds. Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo material
Nicole Marie Tagle. Photo from Philippine Sports Commission Facebook pageArcher Nicole Marie Tagle settled for silver in the individual women’s recurve, bowing to Diananda Choirunisa of Indonesia in the gold medal match in the 2017 Southeast Asian Games Sunday at National Sports Complex in Bukit Jalil, Malaysia.Engaged in a tight battle, the final went down to the fifth set before the 15-year-old Dumaguete native yielded to the top-seeded Choirunisa, 4-6.ADVERTISEMENT Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Read Next UPLB exempted from SEA Games class suspension LATEST STORIES LIST: Class, gov’t work suspensions during 30th SEA Games LOOK: Venues for 2019 SEA Games Uichico, Gilas confident as PH shoots for 18th basketball gold SEA Games in Calabarzon safe, secure – Solcom chief MOST READ Onyok Velasco see bright future for PH boxing in Olympics PLAY LIST 00:45Onyok Velasco see bright future for PH boxing in Olympics03:07PH billiards team upbeat about gold medal chances in SEA Games02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games00:50Trending Articles01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students05:25PH boxing team determined to deliver gold medals for PH03:04Filipino athletes share their expectations for 2019 SEA Games02:25PH women’s volleyball team motivated to deliver in front of hometown crowd01:27Filipino athletes get grand send-off ahead of SEA Games SEA Games: PH’s Alisson Perticheto tops ice skating short program Catriona Gray spends Thanksgiving by preparing meals for people with illnesses Tagle earlier beat Myanmar’s Thida New in the semifinals, 6-2, to assure herself of the podium finish.It was still a triumphant campaign for Tagle, who gave the Philippines its second silver medal in the biennial meet.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutMale standouts Luis Gabriel Moreno and Florante Matan missed out on advancing to the semifinals of the individual men’s recurve.Rogelio Miguel Tremedal, Mark Javier, Pia Elizabeth Biduare, Kareel Meer Hongitan, and Mary Queen Ybañez all failed to progress to the quarterfinals. View comments WATCH: Streetboys show off slick dance moves in Vhong Navarro’s wedding
Read Next UPLB exempted from SEA Games class suspension Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. LATEST STORIES SEA Games in Calabarzon safe, secure – Solcom chief “On my way to Manila! Excited to get back. #StriveForGreatness🚀” said James in a tweet.READ: LeBron James inspires, amazes fans in Manila FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutThis is James’ third visit to Manila.In 2013, fans even lined up for days just to get a chance to see him for the “Witness History” event. LOOK: Venues for 2019 SEA Games Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa READ: LeBron James headed back to Manila for Nike RiseTwo years after, he graced the final day of the the Nike Rise program, where under privileged kids got access to professional training for six weeks at the House of Rise.He is schedule to put on a show for his fans at Mall of Asia Arena Saturday afternoon.ADVERTISEMENT LeBron James dazzles Manila anew in his second trip to the country. Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netLeBron James couldn’t hide his excitement over his return to Manila.The four-time NBA MVP is on his way to the Philippines for the “Strive for Greatness” tour on Saturday.ADVERTISEMENT Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC MOST READ Catriona Gray spends Thanksgiving by preparing meals for people with illnesses View comments WATCH: Streetboys show off slick dance moves in Vhong Navarro’s wedding LeBron James puts on show for ‘unbelievable’ PH fans for 3rd time PLAY LIST 04:50LeBron James puts on show for ‘unbelievable’ PH fans for 3rd time01:22Manila police chief: Cops tolerating illegal street vendors to get ax00:50Trending Articles01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games Eze leads Saints in takedown of Heroes in NCAA Season 93 All-Star Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH
TagsTransfersAbout the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say Agent of Rugani says Juventus never considered saleby Carlos Volcano10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveThe agent of Daniele Rugani says Juventus have never considered selling him.The centre-back was linked with a massive transfer to Chelsea last summer.”Rugani has never been placed on the market by Juventus and that means he has done something right,” agent Davide Torchia told RMC Radio.“Without doubt he will stay at Juve in January. Rugani is an old-fashioned player, committed to his profession and with above all else the desire to improve himself.“Rugani is a reliable player, someone worthy of Juventus, who ensures he is always ready. A player doesn’t stay at Juventus for four years without deserving it.”
Really? Man Utd yet to approach anyone over technical director jobby Paul Vegas14 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveManchester United are still to hold talks with any potential new technical director.Indeed, they’re yet to approach a candidate over the vacant technical director job.The Telegraph says United’s search is continuing but there is an expectation it will be one of the club’s former players.It is believed the club want someone who can quickly understand the club.Ajax CEO Edwin van der Sar has been heavily linked with a return. TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say
WarnerMedia Entertainment exec and industry veteran Kevin Reilly is to remain at the company for at least four more years in an expanded role, the company has announced. Reilly’s role will expand to include all WarnerMedia Entertainment basic cable networks as president of TBS, TNT and truTV, in addition to chief content officer, WarnerMedia Direct-to-Consumer. As part of this company reorganisation, truTV president Chris Linn has left the company.“Kevin has a long-standing reputation as an industry leader and his accomplishments throughout his career — and particularly at this company — are remarkable,” said WarnerMedia Entertainment Chairman. Robert Greenblat. “He will continue to head up our important cable networks as well as oversee the robust content strategy for our new direct- to-consumer streaming service. I look forward to our continued collaboration as we move these valuable WarnerMedia properties forward under Kevin. At the same time, I thank Chris Linn for his leadership and dedication to re-branding and building truTV over the last several years.”Reilly claims the title as the only executive to have led two broadcast and three cable networks. During his tenures, Reilly has had a hand in the production of a range of iconic shows, including The Office, 30 Rock, The Sopranos, ER, Law & Order and Glee.Before joining TBS and TNT, Reilly served as president of entertainment for FOX (2007-2014), president of entertainment at NBC (2004-2007), president of entertainment at FX (2000-2003), and president of television at Brillstein-Grey Entertainment (1994-2000).In 2016 Reilly was inducted into the Broadcasting & Cable Hall of Fame, and in 2018, he received the Brandon Tartikoff Legacy Award from NATPE.