…say more can be done to offer substantial reliefThe dry weather season continues to affect residents and farmers in hinterland communities throughout the country. Residents of Region One (Barima-Waini) are complaining of the negative impacts of the lack of access to potable water. Residents and farmers continue to suffer the harsh effects of the dry spell since there is not enough being done by the water company to offer substantial relief.Residents reached out to Guyana Times on Wednesday to express concerns over the situation and their dissatisfaction with the lack of adequate resources by Guyana Water Inc (GWI) to offer assistance to them.Leon McIntosh, a resident of Port Kaituma, told this publication that the dry spell is severely affecting the residents and no assistance is being offered by the utility company. “This is a very uncomfortable situation here. We are suffering. There is no water. Springs are dry and we are left to find water the best way we know how,” he said.He added that there is scheduled pumping in most villages and this is not enough due to the number of persons from all the communities that have to access the limited water. “So it’s like everybody from all communities flocking one place to get the little water available there. The Government has to do better than this,” he said.Meanwhile, farmers are also suffering losses and are facing extreme difficulty in feeding their families. Nathaniel Caesar, who also reached out to this newspaper, said that he will be unable to feed his family since he depends on farming for his daily bread and the lack of water is seriously affecting him and other farmers in the area.“We are facing hardships. Everybody. Nothing can be done without water and this is going on since the dry weather start and nothing ain’t really being done by the Administration to help in the long-term. Every year is the same thing,” he said.Meanwhile, in an invited comment on Wednesday, Region One Chairman, Brentnol Ashley told Guyana Times that the dry spell is severely affecting all communities in the region as the water level of the GWI springs dropped drastically and pumping is being done periodically once per week and three times per week in some areas. This, he said, is having harsh effects on residents since there is very limited access to potable water. He added that as a result of the dry spell, the rivers are salted, making it impossible for residents of riverine communities to access. Subsequently, those residents are walking for miles to access the limited water supply available in springs.“The severe water shortage is putting a strain on communities,” he said. Ashley further stated that the GWI is making efforts to bring some relief to residents and officials are expected to visit the areas this week to assess the situation and determine what can be done to offer assistance urgently.He confirmed that the lack of water is also affecting farmers in the area who depend on farming for their livelihood. Guyana Times was unable to reach the public relations department of GWI for a comment on the efforts being made by the company to offer relief to the residents in the region.
The Foundation Skills Assesment results are out for 2008, and the Superintendant for School District 60 is pleased with the numbers. Larry Espe appeared on Moose FM’s Issues and Answers on Wednesday morning, to give an update from the school board.Espe says he’s proud that the Grade 4 and 7 results have surpassed the provincial average on four out of six exams. – Advertisement -[asset|aid=2224|format=mp3player|formatter=asset_bonus|title=368c6682fca3b87e80cc662db40273ba-Espe 2_3_Pub.mp3] Aboriginal students beat the provincial average on five out of six assesments. He says that while the report showed declining graduation numbers in district 60, he says the 2009 number show that trend to be reversing.In 2008, graduation numbers dipped to only 64 per cent. Espe says, the 2009 numbers are sitting around 73 per cent. Advertisement He says the school board contacts students to encouarge them to complete their courses. [asset|aid=2225|format=mp3player|formatter=asset_bonus|title=368c6682fca3b87e80cc662db40273ba-Espe 3_4_Pub.mp3] Enrolment numbers have increased by 70 students this year.Espe says the Ministry of Education predicts that number will skyrocket to 900 more kids by 2017. Advertisement To accomodate that influx, the school board has been looking at alternative teaching facilities. Earlier this year, the school board submitted a proposal to the ministry, to use empty rooms in the Enerplex as classrooms. [asset|aid=2227|format=mp3player|formatter=asset_bonus|title=368c6682fca3b87e80cc662db40273ba-Espe 1_3_Pub.mp3] Espe says in the meantime, the school board will have to be creative with accommodating more students in the current facilities.
He notes “our market is far from where it was in the height of 2014, but it’s also taking off a little bit from where it was in the lows of 2016.” “Rentals are also starting to get rented. In speaking with Western Canadian Properties, they are currently at 0% vacancy here in FSJ.” FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – Trevor Bolin says the Real Estate market is starting to show signs of stabilization.Bolin says that houses that have been sitting over the spring and summer, are starting to be bought. He says the reason behind this is the prices are prices that Fort St. John has not seen in a while.He says he did an interview last November and predicted that 2016 would go down in history as one of the best times to buy a home.- Advertisement -He says “With recent announcements and a pick up in the market this couldn’t be more true.”Bolin says that July the bottom of the market, and sales matched those of the late 90’s. He also points to recent announcements that has led to more house buying activity.Rentals are also another area that is seeing some shift.Advertisement
0Shares0000Thierry Henry was an assistant coach with Belgium at the World Cup — the former France striker has turned down an offer to become coach at Bordeaux © AFP/File / BENJAMIN CREMELBORDEAUX, France, Aug 29 – Thierry Henry rejected the offer to become coach of Bordeaux due to the “uncertainty” behind the scenes at the French outfit, the club’s president Stephane Martin said on Wednesday.Bordeaux confirmed on Tuesday that the 41-year-old, the all-time record goal-scorer for Arsenal and France, had decided against starting his managerial career at the helm of the six-time French champions. Martin said there were “several reasons” for Henry’s decision not to replace Gustavo Poyet in south-western France, but admitted that the fact the club are in the process of being bought out by an American consortium may ultimately have worked against them.“It is essentially down to the climate of uncertainty around the club, the period of transition that we are in, that meant things did not end positively,” Martin said.General American Capital Partners (GACP) are expected to complete their purchase of the club from French media conglomerate MG in late September.“He is very methodical, judicious and passionate about football,” Martin said of Henry, who is looking to strike out on his own as a coach after working as an assistant with the Belgian national team at the World Cup.“He really wants to be a coach in the long term, it’s not just a passing fancy. For his first experience in coaching, he wanted to be certain that all the conditions were right and he made a decision after thinking about it that he would not start with us.“Great players like him want to have great careers as coaches so they think twice about it.”Poyet, who was only appointed in January, was suspended earlier this month following a public row with directors over transfer policy. He is set to leave the club although Bordeaux are yet to officially announce his dismissal.In the meantime, Eric Bedouet is set to again take interim charge of the team in Thursday’s Europa League play-off, second leg at home to Gent.Bordeaux are targeting a place in the group stage after drawing 0-0 in Belgium in the first leg last week.“We move on, we have an important match tomorrow, we are very focused on that. It’s no drama,” added Martin, who says they will now take their time before appointing a new coach.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)
31st October 2011Happy Halloween to you all!!I suspect we are all getting ready for the trick or treat’s that we will have in hoards to our doors tonight. We will enjoy watching the many different costumes and listening to the rhymes and handing out treats. Please spare a thought to the pets out there who find Halloween very stressful! Many find the constant ringing of the doorbell and lively children a real stressful time! This, along with fireworks and bangers can cause damaging upset to pets.Put pets somewhere safe and maybe have some music or a radio playing to help drown out the constant noise. If your dog is seriously upset by fireworks, have you ever thought of buying a Thunder Jacket? It’s a device that wraps round the dog and it provides safety. There are things on the market which can help dogs such as Rescue Remedy drops (not the tablets) or calming tablets available from your Vet.If you are dressing up for a fun night out, make sure your costume is secure and should you be dressing up your pet, make sure it is safe and nothing can fall off or be chewed off and cause choking!Keep your treats out of your pets reach. Remember chocolate is poisonous to dogs and cansy can cause all sorts of problems too!! Pumpkins are fabulous when lit up with a candle. Make sure they are also out of reach for dogs when they start barking in case they knock them over and cause a fire. Kittens are also curiius so watch them also!After all that, please have a wonderful and enchanting Halloween with your loved ones!!CLARE BOYLE’S DOG BLOG was last modified: October 31st, 2011 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:CLARE BOYLE’S DOG BLOG
ONLINE security staff were key to catching a Nigerian crook behind a scam at McElhinneys’ Department Store in Ballybofey, a court has heard.The alert sparked a garda investigation which exposed Selman Momoh as a thief and a liar, Letterkenny District Court heard.Momoh was behind bars last night as a result of the investigation sparked by an online purchase of a pair of shoes worth €216. Inspector Michael Harrison told the court that online security staff became suspicious when an attempt was made to purchase items online using a stolen credit card last month.The purchase was declined.However a second order was placed using a different credit card, but giving the same address as the first order.McElhinneys called gardai as the address for delivery in Stranorlar didn’t exist.On October 28 Momoh called the shop twice to ask when his shoes were going to be delivered and he was invited to call into the shop to pick them up.But gardai were waiting and watched Momoh collect the parcel before returning to an S-Type Jaguar parked outside.Gardai arrested Momoh and carried out a follow-up search at an address in Stranorlar.They discovered a fake Irish passport – in a different name – which had been used to gain a tenancy of the property. They also discovered Momoh’s real name because had used this to order a Sky TV dish.They later discovered Momoh had been in McElhinneys store two weeks earlier where he had stolen a pair of Newbridge silver ear-rings.Momoh admitted a range of offences including using a computer with the intention to make a gain, theft, handling stolen goods, gaining a tenancy in a false name, driving without tax, driving without insurance, driving with a licence, possession of a fake passport.He had been in custody for almost three weeks after claiming his Nigerian passport was out of date – when in fact he had a new one.Solicitor Patsy Gallagher said Momoh had been foolish and had admitted spending €1,100 buying the fake Irish passport.t.“He made full and frank admissions,” said Mr Gallagher who had asked for community service or a suspended prison sentence.However Judge Paul Kelly said: “He went to some lengths in these crimes. They were not the act of a fella trying something off the cuff. He put a considerable amount of effort into this. Community service not an appropriate way to deal with the matter.”Momoh was fined €450 and given two three month terms in prison.All the goods stolen from McElhinneys were returned to the shop.REVEALED: HOW McELHINNEYS SECURITY STAFF NABBED NIGERIAN ONLINE CROOK was last modified: November 17th, 2015 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:courtcrookMCELHINNEYSthief
I’m No.1 Gianluigi Buffon Latest Szczesny uses Alisson and Buffon to joke about his place among football’s best He posted a tweet (below) which translates into the following statement:“17 years in black and white that officially end today.“17 years of friends, companions, tears, victories, defeats, trophies, words, angry, disappointments, happiness and many, many emotions.“I will never forget anything. I will always carry everything with me. #FinoAllaFine [#UntilTheEnd]” 1 Frank Lampard and legends who made famous returns to their clubs as managers 11 times Wenger came ‘very close’ to signing the best in the world at Arsenal 17 anni in bianconero che si concludono ufficialmente oggi. 17 anni di amici, compagni, lacrime, vittorie, sconfitte, trofei, parole, rabbia, delusioni, felicità e tante, tantissime emozioni. Non dimenticherò mai nulla. Porterò sempre tutto con me. #FinoAllaFine pic.twitter.com/Qu1vb0UOH2— Gianluigi Buffon (@gianluigibuffon) June 30, 2018Buffon is yet to reveal his future plans, but called time on his Juventus career after winning his ninth Serie A title and fourth consecutive league and cup double.The Italian has been heavily linked with a move to PSG. Seven wonderkids who shot to fame overnight, including Premier League aces RECORD BREAKER Ronaldo scores 700th goal – Buffon reveals what he said after that overhead kick Sancho, Ronaldo and the players Wenger ‘nearly’ signed for Arsenal STAR STUDDED ones that got away LANDMARK Buffon greeted fans after his final match Almost XI I’M BACK Gianluigi Buffon’s time at Juventus officially came to an end today after a 17-year spell at the club.The goalkeeper signed from Parma in 2001 and has been an iconic member of the Juve team until his contract expiry on June 30. moving for mat star is born ‘Life is incredible,’ says Buffon as he re-joins Juve to be Szczesny’s understudy How Leeds United could line up next season with Italy legends Totti and Buffon Juventus submit initial £58m De Ligt bid, while Buffon has medical Back Buffon wants clause inserted in contract to surpass AC Milan legend
REVEALED Green reveals how he confronted Sarri after Chelsea’s 6-0 defeat at Man City Jones spent just over a year with Chelsea Blues team-mate Wise had a fall-out with Stan Ternent, then assistant manager to the club’s boss Ian Porterfield, and that is where Vinnie’s story begins.“We were out in Spain doing some training and Stan Ternent and Wisey had a real bad fall-out,” he says “It nearly came to blows and Stan told him to clear off. So he’s cleared off and we’ve carried on training and finished.“But we’ve all got to have a dinner that night.“So we’ve gone to have dinner with management and all the lads there…and Stan and Wisey are still going at it.“Wisey tips the table up and storms out the restaurant. So Stan comes over and says ‘you better go sort your mate out or he can get a flight home’.“I’ve gone back and Wisey’s in the bar at the hotel and I’ve told him he’s got to calm down. He said ‘nah, he’s out of order’.“So I replied ‘let’s go and do his room then and get our own back’. Most read in Premier League SORRY Which teams do the best on Boxing Day in the Premier League era? The average first-team salaries at every Premier League club in 2019 gameday cracker Liverpool news live: Klopp reveals when Minamino will play and issues injury update whoops changes silverware tense latest predicted revealed “So we go up to reception and say ‘it’s Mr Ternent … I’ve lost my key. Give me a key for the room’.“So he’s given me a key and he’s also given me Stan’s passport, because we gave them in all. So Wisey’s eyes have lit up, and I can’t let him have it because he just wants to rip it up.“So we’ve gone up to Stan’s room and gone in, and every mortal thing in the room we’ve put on the balcony – anything that was not screwed down.“We’ve done the telly, the bed, all his clothes, the sideboards… every mortal thing has gone on the balcony. Then we closed the curtains.“We got back down the bar and are having a drink when Stan comes in with the boys and Gwyn Williams. He’s feeling a bit cocky because he’s had a couple of drinks, and he says he’s going to the casino.“He asks for his passport and the bloke goes to the back and comes out and gives Gwyn his, but says ‘Mr Ternent there’s no passport’. Stan has gone absolutely nuts!.“This has gone on for about 20 minutes and me and Wisey are sitting there giggling – and Wisey’s obviously sitting on the passport. 2 Boxing Day fixtures: All nine Premier League games live on talkSPORT Did Mahrez just accidentally reveal Fernandinho is leaving Man City this summer? Vinnie Jones has regaled talkSPORT with another of his brilliant stories, this time involving Dennis Wise, a stolen passport and an empty hotel room.Vinnie spoke to Monday’s Alan Brazil Sports Breakfast and revealed the tale which was set on a golf trip taken to Spain while the famous hardman was playing for Chelsea. How Everton could look in January under Ancelotti with new signings England’s most successful clubs of the past decade, according to trophies won Guardiola-inspired tactics: Is this how Arsenal will line up under Arteta? 2 Wise was Chelsea’s most successful captain until John Terry’s trophy-laden career Sky Sports presenter apologises for remarks made during Neville’s racism discussion “Stan’s called security and they’ve come, and management have come – the whole lot. The manager has said he’ll look in his room, and our eyes have lit up.“Two days before we had been warned we’d be thrown out the hotel as well… this was like the final straw.“So as they’re going to go up in the lift Stan said to the security ‘those two are coming as well’. So they’ve hauled us up and we go in knowing what’s going to happen.“They’ve opened the door and there’s nothing in there whatsoever, and they’ve gone absolutely mental!“They said ‘you’re out of the hotel!’, but Stan said he’d sort it out. He asked where all the gear was and we opened the balcony and the manager has gone absolutely nuts – he wants to kick us out.“Stan said ‘we’ll get the passport back as one of them has got it’, so we gave the passport back, but he went ‘I want you two to put all my gear back’.“And while he’s done that Stan’s ordered three beers, and he’s got a cigarette going on the balcony drinking his three beers while me and Wisey are putting all his stuff back in the room.“We stayed in the hotel for two more nights!’You can listen to Vinnie’s full story, told on the Alan Brazil Sports Breakfast, above…
Donegal GAA star Paddy McBrearty could do plenty of scoring off the pitch in the USA according to a poll conducted by betting giant Paddy Power.Paddy Power surveyed 1,000 American women to see which county had the best looking GAA team in Ireland. Paddy Power asked the woman to rate the head and shoulders photos of every player from every inter-county football and hurling team in Ireland.Donegal made it into the top five best looking teams in Ireland finishing in fourth placed behind the Sligo footballers, Dublin hurlers and topping the poll were the Galway footballers.However, they then selected the top 25 best looking players and rolling into the top ten was our own Patrick McBrearty.McBrearty is renowned for his scoring exploits and is regarded as one of the best forwards in Ireland. McBrearty was selected as the ‘seventh’ hottest GAA player in Ireland.The news he is a BIG hit with the ladies Stateside may make the offers McBrearty receives to go to the USA to play football every summer all the more tempting!Donegal defender Paddy McGrath also impressed the American ladies and was selected 12th overall.Our neighbours Tyrone didn’t fare well at all despite the tremendous efforts they go to in styling their hair!They finished bottom of the pile in the survey but the Tyrone players are apparently still very popular with women in Cookstown. PADDY MCBREARTY IS A BIG HIT WITH THE LADIES IN THE USA! was last modified: August 20th, 2015 by Mark ForkerShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:newsSport
(Visited 37 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 The news are all reporting 2014 as the hottest year on record, but no one is asking how such a measurement can be made without bias.“The heat is on: NOAA, NASA say 2014 warmest year on record,” Seth Borenstein states on PhysOrg. The data videos in the article look pretty conclusive. But for anyone who thinks scientific conclusions should rest on evidence, not on authority (even prestigious specialty organizations like NOAA and NASA), it might bear examining the question of earth’s temperature from a philosophical viewpoint: How does one measure it? We can’t put a thermometer under Mother Earth’s tongue.Even when we use a thermometer for a human, we are arbitrarily taking a measurement from one part of the body to the exclusion of others, because we consider it “useful” as a proxy for a person’s health. The reading might be different in the rectum, or the ears, or at the abdomen compared to the extremities. If mouth temperature under the tongue is useful, there is a bit of natural fluctuation around the mean; your temperature is rarely exactly 98.6° F. Scientists know that all measurements involve some degree of error. They use different methods of averaging, such as mean, mode, and median, to select a measurement that is useful for their purposes.The error bars and biases are greatly exacerbated when trying to come up with “a number” that represents a global measurement. For earth’s temperature, consider just a few of the sources of error and bias:Every square mile of the earth’s surface has its own temperature at a given time. The poles are colder than the equatorial regions.Each point’s temperature is constantly changing. It’s colder at night than during the day.The temperature varies with height above the surface. The atmosphere has a temperature profile from ground to stratosphere that, too, is constantly changing.The temperature varies with depth beneath the surface; it’s hotter underground, and colder with depth in the oceans.The weather is constantly changing; air speed and humidity can influence measurements.Surfaces near a thermometer, such as black asphalt or grass, can influence measurements.Each environment has its own thermal inertia. Some rocks cool down more slowly than other surfaces. The measurement might include some residual heat from the past instead of the current temperature.Humans or machines that read the instruments can make mistakes.There are multiple methods of taking temperature: thermoelectric, mercury and other liquids, or bimetallic strips, for instance. Who decides which type of device to use?If a change in device type is made at a station, or is rolled out at all stations over time, how do measurements with the new device correlate with measurements from the previous device?All recording devices must be calibrated. It becomes difficult to ensure equal calibration for monitoring stations around the world. Some countries could be more careless. Some stations might drop out from damage, neglect, or vandalism.It’s impossible to gather data from every point on the globe, so decisions have to be made about where to put monitoring stations.It’s impossible to gather data continuously from a given monitoring station, so decisions have to be made about what times of day to collect data points. Should it be daily highs and lows? Or should it be temperatures at noon and midnight? Who decides?Earth’s climate has natural cyclic variations over multiple time scales, some of them poorly known or unknown.This is not a complete list. So what is the “temperature of the earth”? There is no such thing. There is “a” temperature at “a” place, at “a” time, under certain environmental conditions, at a given humidity and wind speed, as measured by an artificial device that may or may not be calibrated properly and working properly. By itself, a temperature reading signifies nothing about climate, because it’s trying to measure a moving target in a very small location on a huge planet.It should be obvious that human bias enters every factor. Someone has to decide where to put the monitoring stations, what device to use, and what data points to collect at what times. When the data are in, the numbers must be crunched and the error mitigated according to some model or method. A scientist or a program based on a model may decide to toss out data that appear anomalous according to someone’s criteria, but what if those data points are meaningful? Models and methods are human constructs, devised for their “usefulness” – but even so, models are only simulations of reality, not reality itself. It’s impossible to know all the factors that could influence the results.Much more troublesome is trying to link temperature trends (if they are meaningful at all) to causes. Seth Borenstein’s article is adamant that humans have caused 2014 to be the hottest year on record. Who could possibly know that? Pictures of smokestacks at power plants can’t prove it; that titillates the emotions by visualization, perhaps, but isolated pictures are not global evidence. Recently, for instance, it was reported that more methane (a potent greenhouse gas) was emitted by earthquakes than previously thought (Science Magazine). Hardly a month goes by without some new factor being reported that could alter the models’ conclusions. Here’s one from a few days ago on PhysOrg: “Mountain system artificially inflates temperature increases at higher elevations,” suggesting that “warming in the mountains of the western U.S. likely is not as large as previously supposed.” Here’s another one announced on PhysOrg 11 days ago: “A new NASA-led study shows that tropical forests may be absorbing far more carbon dioxide than many scientists thought, in response to rising atmospheric levels of the greenhouse gas.” Examples like this could be multiplied.Sociologists of science probably find it intriguing that the “climate of opinion” on anthropogenic climate change has divided sharply between the “consensus” and the “deniers”. Both have well-qualified experts to point fingers across the aisle. The point of this analysis is not to take sides, but to point out, from a philosophical perspective, that such answers cannot be known by the methods of science. There are too many variables. The error bars are too large. There are too many unknowns and unknowables. Scientists don’t fully understand all the factors and feedback mechanisms, like clouds, ocean currents and forests, that could alter the models significantly. Human biases are unavoidable.For example, consensus scientists were caught red-faced when having to admit a 15-year “warming hiatus” since about 1995. They rushed to rescue their conclusions (i.e., about warming being man’s fault) by looking for ad hoc explanations. Here’s one that appeared a few days ago on PhysOrg: “The ‘warming hiatus’ that has occurred over the last 15 years has been partly caused by small volcanic eruptions.” The article claims, “a series of small 21st century volcanic eruptions deflected substantially more solar radiation than previously estimated.” But this explanation, while giving the consensus a story to tell the press, raises more questions than it answers. What other factors are substantially greater “than previously estimated”? If small volcanoes have this much power to influence the climate in short order, why aren’t the alarmists blaming the volcanoes instead of the power plants? And if smoke and dust lower the temperature, why isn’t the solution to throw even more soot from power plants into the atmosphere?Consensus scientists know and believe that climate swings greater than anything observed today have occurred naturally in the past. So the current debate reduces to identifying what factors out of large number of possibilities, including unknowns and unknown unknowns, tend to indict human beings for a trend that might be purely natural. Experts in scientific ethics might well ask, also, why warming is such a worrisome thing, if animals and plants thrived in the past under even greater climate swings.When scientific institutions (or consensus deniers) take leave of their empirical modesty and become emotional advocates for causes that cannot be rationalized by scientific methods, even in principle, it’s a good time to ask whether ideology or politics is influencing their behavior. This goes for Clarke and Lawler, who passionately argued on The Conversation that people need to trust experts, otherwise they are being anti-intellectual. Some questions, though, are not questions of science; they are questions of philosophy about science. Many scientists are not trained to think critically about the limitations of science.Again, this is not to take sides in a “heated” debate, but to step back and look at the debate philosophically. Professor Jeffrey Kasser, in his Teaching Company series on Philosophy of Science, tells a somewhat humorous story about the difficulty of objectively measuring a property of a material, namely “fragility.” It seems simple at first; you hit something, and if it breaks, it’s fragile, right? But what if it breaks only when hit hard, or with a certain kind of object? At the end of a long train of factors to consider, he ends with having to define fragility with a long list of arbitrary methods: you have to hit the object with a standard hammer with a standard whack at a given angle, etc. etc.Even taking the temperature of a room could require a long list of directions that some human had to decide: use a certain kind of thermometer, at a certain height off the floor, holding it with gloves instead of bare hands, and so forth. But then, what kind of gloves, and how thick? Does the measurer have to wear a white lab coat? There are an infinite number of conditions that might change the measurement. We know some are silly and unlikely to affect the outcome, such as what the measurer had for breakfast. But those criteria cannot be defined scientifically; they are arbitrary, based on what the people who define the method consider useful. No human can know all the factors that come into play. And that’s just for measuring a small room. How much more defining the “temperature of the earth.” We hope you see that such a measurement is meaningless!Interestingly, temperature itself is a vexed question. What is it? There are several definitions; motion of molecules, that which feels hot to the touch, that which raises mercury a certain number of millimeters in a tube, etc. But what is temperature? The operationalist Bridgman said, “Temperature is what thermometers measure” (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). The mathematician Fourier forswore the debate about heat, opting instead to offer an equation that describes what heat does, not what it is. Often in science, the deeper the questions you ask about seemingly simple phenomena, the more puzzling they become. Even Newton did not deign to feign what gravity is. He only described what it does, and what calculations you can make with an equation.Finally, we should think about scientific ethics. Ostensibly, it is the job of a scientist to describe and explain a phenomenon, not to advocate for what politicians should do about it. So why are all these climate scientists like Michael Mann and his friends warming up to U.N. climate summits and telling them what must be done? You may agree with him, and it is his right, like any other person’s, to have political beliefs. But to claim a belief about climate change is scientific goes far beyond the ability of science to know. The take-home lesson from this entry is that science is not objective; it is profoundly human, and humans are often driven by ideology. Don’t be influenced by majorities and pictures and graphs, when the underlying data cannot be conclusive. If it’s consensus, it’s not science; if it’s science, it is not consensus.